Nanotechnology - Nomenclature

Autor: Ing. Tasilo Prnka, DrSc. <(at)>, Téma: Nomenklatura, Zdroj: Nanotechnologies in Czech Republic, 2008 , Vydáno dne: 24. 11. 2008

Nanosciences and nanotechnologies mean,in their concept,new approaches to the understanding and utilisation of properties of the mass that critically depend on sizes,which are at the level of nanometres.

Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic,molecular and macromolecuar scales,where properties significantly differ from those at larger scale.
Nanotechnologies are the design,characterisation,production and application of structures, devices and systems controlling shape and size at nanometre scale.

The presented definitions were formulated within the preparation of the British study "Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies:Opportunities and Uncertainties" in 2004. It is important to define this interdisciplinary area of science and technology in order to make it different from classic disciplines of science and technology.That is the reason why the words with the prefix of "nano", like, for  example, nanomaterials, nanomedicine,nanobiotechnology,nanoanalytics,nanoelectronics,and a number of others,but also nanochemistry and nanophysics,are often used,even if that can be sometimes misleading.On the other hand, many authors,institutions and companies do not use,in their fields of work done within the nanometre sizes,the prefix nano and that makes the identification of their activities more difficult and may even lead to not precise results of conducted research.


Nanotechnologies – Nomenclature

1. Nanomaterials
a) Nanopowder materials, nanoparticles, quantum dots, and nanofibres
b) Composite materials containing nanoparticles
c) Materials with carbon nanotubes or fullerenes
d) Thin layers, nanolayers, and nanocoatings
e) Nanostructural metals and alloys
f) Nanoceramics
g) Polymer nanocomposites and polymer nanomaterials

2. Nanotechnology for the storage and transmission of information, micro- and nanoelectronics
a) Nanoelectronics, materials and equipment
b) Photonics
c) Optic materials, structures and equipment
d) Magnetic materials and equipment, spintronics
e) Organic photonics and bioelectronics
f) MEMS, NEMS

3. Nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine
a) Encapsulating of drugs
b) Targeted transport of medicine
c) Tissue engineering
d) Biocompatible and bio-analogical materials and layers
e) Molecular analysis and DNA analysis
f) Biological-inorganic interface and hybrids
g) Diagnostics and molecular recognition

4. Nanotechnology for applications in sensors
a) Sensors utilising nanomaterials
b) Biomolecular sensors

5. Nanotechnology in the (electric) chemical processing technologies
a) Filtration, membranes, molecular sieves, and zeolites
b) Catalysis or electrodes with nanostructural surfaces
c) Chemical synthesis, supramolecular chemistry

6. Long-term research with the wide spectrum of applications
a) Self-assembly
b) Quantum physics, quantum phenomena in nanosizes, and nanophysics
c) Nano- and mesoscopic systems
d) Chemical materials and processes - nanochemistry
e) Ultra-precise engineering

7. Instruments and facilities, research and applications of technologies
a) Analytical instruments, methods, techniques, and research
b) Manufacture (preparation) of nanopowders (nanoparticles) and their processing
c) Facilities and methods for the creation of layers and coatings
d) Facilities and methods for the creation of objects (patterning, ECAP, fibre fabrication, etc.)
e) Ultra-precise machining and nanometrology

8. Health, ecological, ethical, social and other aspects of nanotechnologies
a) Toxicity of nanoparticles
b) Environmental aspects
c) Social and ethical aspects
d) Standardisation
e) Patenting
f) Roadmaps and foresight
g) Popularisation of nanotechnologies
h) Trade in nanoproducts