Research intentions

Autor: -- <(at)>, Téma: Záměry, Vydáno dne: 12. 11. 2007

Research intentions that are oriented fully or partly on nanotechnologies and managed by different providers are outlined here. Research intention means the determination of the research subject of activities by a legal person or organisation unit, its goals, strategy, costs, and envisaged results tried for within the basic or applied research, with the exception of the industrial research, its conceptual development in the period of 5 to 7 years. The funding of research intentions is institutional.

Provider: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (CAS)

INSTITUTE OF BIOPHYSICS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (BFÚ CAS)
Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno

AV0Z50040507 “Biophysics of the dynamic structures and functions of biological systems”, (2005–2010), the research manager is Doc. RNDr. Stanislav Kozubek, DrSc.
The research is focussed on relations between the primary DNA structure and its conformation properties, while the evolution of genomes, the DNA interaction with proteins (histones, HMG proteins, oncological proteins) and efficient anti-tumour substances containing metals, the interaction of DNA and proteins in interim stages in relation to electrochemical sensors for genomics and proteomics, the architecture of the cell core, the arrangement and modification of the chromatin, the structure and function of nucleoproteins and telomere complexes, dynamics of genomes and genomic territories, relations between the gene expression, cell differentiation, oncological transformation and ontogenetic development, influence of endo and exogenic mediators modifying proliferation, differentiation and the apoptis in cell populations, computer simulations of the dynamic structure and the interactions of DNA/RNA with proteins and biological active substances are taken into consideration. The application will occur in medicine, agrobiology, ecotoxicology, and in biotechnology.

AV0Z50040702 „Genome and epigenome: 1D and 3D Structure, Dynamics, Interactions with Proteins and Functions“, (2007-2013), the research manager is Doc. RNDr. Miroslav Fojta, CSc.
The research is focused on the study of molecular and spatial structure of genome, effects of epigenetic variations on arrangement of the genome in cell nucleus, dynamics of genome, epigenome and proteome during cell cycle, differentiation and malignant transformation of the cell. The mechanisms of epigenetic control of gene expression and role of the epigenome in heredity of transcriptional profile and its changes in differentiation, ontogenesis and phylogeny is investigated. Attention is paid to detailed study of the impacts of living systems exposure to external factors (physical and/or chemical) on genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome levels. Efforts aimed to expansion of methodological background of the science disciplines involved, including development of novel experimental approaches, represent important strand of the proposed research. Results of the research plan will find applications especially in biomedicine, biotechnologies and ekotoxicology. The above-description implies that the Institute focuses its activities on the area of molecular biology, biotechnology, genomics, and proteomics and other bioscience. A number of the above-mentioned issues belong to the field of nanoscience, bio-nanotechnology, and nanomedicine.

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (FZÚ CAS)
Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8

AV0Z10100520 “Specific phenomena in condensed systems with the lowered space dimension and disturbed symmetry”, (2005-2010), the research manager is prom. fyz. Milada Glogarová, CSc.
The subject of activities is the study of dynamic and co-operation phenomena in condensed substances with significantly disturbed symmetry caused by the lowered dimension, faults and irregularities in the space arrangement (thin layers, supermatrices, grain boundaries, domains, and phases, impurities, clusters, nanocomposites, liquid crystals). There is the influence of electron correlations, impurities, and non homogeneities on the formation of the electron structure of materials with complicated crystalline structures studied. The dynamics of the dielectric response of materials with significant dielectric properties are studied as well as the mechanical and structural properties of grain boundaries in selected metallic semi-crystals and the phase transformations in the intermetallic alloys with the shape memory (the high temperature alloys, magnetic alloys, etc.) in the polycrystalline state. The structure of nanocrystalline metallic materials, including the presence of micro tensions and remaining deformations, changes in the matrix parameter and in the structures at the grain boundaries, which differ in these materials from the structure in classic polycrystals, is researched. There are systems with pronounced magnetic and co-operation properties prepared and tested. The theoretical part of the intention has got as its objective the complex microscopic description of electron and atomic properties of the systems with a non trivial structure, the disturbed symmetry, a lowered dimension, or existing in extreme conditions both in the state of the thermodynamic balance and outside. On one hand, researchers will start with the fundamental theory of electron and atomic processes described with the qualitative microscopic models of specific aspects of solid substances, but on the other hand, they will try for the application of the basic theory in the area of material research that requires realistic calculations for concrete systems. The gained knowledge should make a base for further development of materials with the required properties, or possibly functional materials utilising characteristic changes of its properties caused by influences of external conditions.

AV0Z 10100521 “Physical properties and preparation of nanostructures, surfaces, and thin layers”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is RNDr. Antonín Šimůnek, CSc.
The research intention focuses its main activity on the exploratory research of new forms of solid substances, the properties or behaviour of which are decisively determined either by their surface or by their nanometry or stratification or possibly aperiodic structure. The world trends in the research of such materials are significantly influenced not only by the already existing successful or at least hopeful practical applications, but also by the scope of the newly found physical phenomena. The workplace finds itself in a very suitable position for the research of these “modern” materials because of the past long-term successful experimental and theoretical study of semiconductors and magnetic materials. The solution of the research task present the purposeful interconnection of advanced technologies used in the preparation of the researched materials, unique methods for their experimental study within the extensive field of external conditions and the theoretical processing of resulting knowledge with the aid of microphysical theoretical models and ab-initio calculations. The subject of the research activity is focussed on the 3 following topical directions I, II, and III:

The study of surfaces and of the growth of thin layers and nanostructures, especially silicon and diamond, but also of scintillation materials, the determination of their microstructure with the nanometric resolution and the study of the influence of a microstructure on the transport and optical properties.
· The research of thin layers of Si is focussed on the growth of micro(nano)-crystalline Si, especially at the low temperatures of the deposition, the creation of predictive model and its utilisation for the verification of possible creation of non traditional kinds of photovoltaic cells, but also the possibility to utilise these materials for nanolithography. Si nanostructures, prepared in the form of thin layers made of nanoparticles obtained by the photochemical etching or by the implantation of Si ions, e.g. into Infrasil, are studied with the objective to verify the existence of an optical benefit and the consequent possibility of preparation of the Si laser for the silicon nanophotonics.
· Important subjects of studies are also the semiconductor surfaces and their reconstruction at the atomic level and the diffusion of adsorbed atoms. There is the STM microscopy used and the observed topographic shapes are characterised by the local density of electron states in a real space, which decisively determines the future application in nanotechnologies. STS spectroscopy allows for the chemical identification of observed objects, which will be interpreted with model and ab-initio calculations within the DFT formalism.
· Diamond is prepared in the form of homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial layers. There are the structural, electron, and spectroscopic properties studied at the atomic level as well as the introduced optical and electric characterisation of layers, the spectroscopy of defects and impurities in the diamond layers, including the macroscopic characterisation of samples. There are electronic parts (e.g. detectors) prepared on the basis of diamond layers and the bioactive surfaces for the DNA biochips, and also biosensors in future.
· Selected scintillation materials are used for the studies of transfer processes and energy capture, material stability under the conditions of a scintillation conversion and the influence of material defects. There are methods of the spectroscopy differentiated in time and EPR utilised, mostly on monocrystals of complex fluorides and oxides with a wide banned band, including the modelling of dynamics of excited states of luminescent centres.

Semiconductor structures on the basis of AIIIBV compounds, especially the research of nanostructures and systems with lowered dimension and diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors.
The research covers:
· Optimising of the structure growth with required parameters prepared by the MBE technologies, or MOVPE,
· Experimental study of electric, optical and magnetic properties of samples prepared from these structures. In the case of nanostructures and low-dimension systems, this relates mostly to the luminescent spectroscopy and the electron transport, the magnetic transport and the cyclotron resonance respectively. In the case of ferromagnetic semiconductors, the transport measuring is accompanied with magnetic-optical experiments and with the study of magnetisation and magnetic susceptibility,
· The comprehensive quantitative theoretical description of the observed phenomena within the quantum electrodynamics. In the case of ferromagnetic semiconductors, there is the implemented methodology developed on the basis of a model of the magnetic interaction existing between the local impurity spins mediated by movable carriers in the valence band of semiconductors,
· The research of the non magnetic nanostructures is oriented on the future potential application in optoelectronics. The diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors will find their utilisation in the so-called spin electronics (spintronics). The implemented methodology will allow for the quantitative modelling of spintronic functions connected with the phenomena, like the giant magnetic resistance, by the power induced change in the magnetisation, Kerr and Faraday rotation, etc. The preliminary researches show that these phenomena can be in the semiconductors of this kind much stronger than in classical metallic ferromagnetic materials.

Crystalline structure, magnetic and transport properties of selected materials Research is focussed on:
· The stratified, nanosegregated and special complex oxides and inter-metallic compounds showing a strong response to changes of external thermodynamic conditions, which are researched within the combined extreme conditions, i.e. under very low and very high temperatures, high external pressure, and strong magnetic fields.
· Superconductive vortexes will be studied experimentally and theoretically in nanostructured superconductors. There will be ab-initio and model calculations related to the electron structure of the system with a strong electron correlation done.
· Development of calculation methods related to the electron states using the first principles based on the theory of the functional spin density, especially the methods suitable for the systems with strong correlation, where the current approaches have not shown the satisfactory conformity of the theory and experiments. In parallel with the electron structure, there is also the real material structure theoretically explored by diffractive and spectroscopic methods. There are methods developed for the description of X-ray absorption spectra (XANES) for the purpose of the structural analysis of clusters (the cluster size, the influence of the shape and the surface of the cluster).
· Draw of general conclusions in relation to the unconnected modulation functions for the cases, which show single-dimensional modulations to two or three-dimensional modulations. It shows that the high symmetry of certain substances leads consequently to the occurrence of several modulation vectors.
· The implementation of a general multiphase description for the analyses of material structures consisting of more phases.

The research activity related to the mentioned materials done at the atomic level will allow, together with theoretical models and calculations, not only for the analysis and interpretation of experimental data, but also for the prediction of physical properties of the studied systems. The introduction of full operations of the Czech Measuring Station at the synchrotron Elettra in Trieste opens new chances for the physics of solid substances.

AV0Z10100522 “Wave and particle spreading of light, optical materials and technologies”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is prom.fyz.Jan Řídký, CSc.,
The objective is to study properties of classical and quantum aspects of the light spreading, the optical materials, stratified structures, and optical systems and technologies. In the case of the classical optics, the work focuses mainly on the interferometers, holography, coherent and statistical behaviour of light beams, and the fractal optics. In the area of quantum optics, there are different kinds of sources of quantum correlated photon pairs constructed. In quantum informatics, the work focuses on the measuring of the overlap, the fidelity, and the purity of quantum states. In the case of optical materials, the research relates to selected multiple doped oxide crystals with high polarisation and nanostructured optical materials, especially to the anomalous behaviour of optical properties close to the phase junctions. The optical technologies will be covered in the study of physical bases of non traditional optical and opto-plasma technologies suitable for the preparation of new kinds of functional optical thin-layered systems and nanostructures. In the X-ray optics, the work will focus on the crystalline optics for the synchrotron radiation. In connection with the nanotechnology:
There are physical properties of thin layers prepared with the aid of differently modified low temperature plasma technologies studied. They are mainly thin layers, multilayer systems, and nanostructures determined for the research and application in optics and optoelectronics.
There is also the research of basic micromechanical parameters of optical functional thin layered systems, nanocomposites, interfaces and nanostructured surfaces organised. The experimental research focuses mainly on structures prepared on the basis of different forms of doped carbon, or the perovskite oxides, including the study of diffusion processes and the adsorption on defined surfaces.
The research focuses mainly on the following forms of optical materials: Crystals, textures, ceramics, thin layers and their systems, interfaces, sub surface layers and surface structures, nanocomposites, and nanoparticles and nanoporous systems.
The creation of nanocrystalline, nanocomposite and gradient layers in new and perspective materials in the reactive environment. The study and optimising of the depositing process with the objective to create stoichiometric and crystalline layers under low depository temperatures on large area pads (at the level of 3 x 3cm2) and the thickness non homogeneity lower than 10%. The attention focuses mainly on the following materials: C, Ti, Zr, Zn, Al, Fe, BN, Cr, Si, etc.

INSTITUTE OF MICROBIOLOGY of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (MBÚ CAS)
Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Praha 4, I.D. (IČO) 61388971

AV0Z50200510 “Microorganisms in research and biotechnologies”, (2005 – 2010), the research managerr - Prof. RNDr. Blanka Říhová DrSc.
The work is focussed on genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, physiology, stress factors, differentiation, morphology, phylogenesis, ecology of microorganisms, including their biodegradation activities, and on the mechanisms of their long-term adaptations to unfavourable conditions. There will be also biotransformations, recombination and transgenic microbe technologies studied. Breeding and molecular-genetic methods will help in the preparation of recombinated microorganisms and their products will be gained in pilot plant conditions. In the case of algae and bacteria, there will be molecular mechanisms in photosynthetic processes and phototrophic and heterotrophic reproductions studied. Molecular aspects of bacterial pathogenicity, both inborn and gained immunity reactions of conventional and germ free animals and their regulations under physiologically and pathologically changed conditions will be analysed. The attention will be turned to the study of possible influencing of autoimmune reactions and tumorous diseases, the preparation of vaccines, the antitumour drugs, and immunotherapeutics. Some works of this intention belong to the area of nanotechnologies, especially to nanobiotechnologies and nanomedicine:
· Preparation of organic-metallic nanocomposites based on soluble exopolysaccharides, Al, Fe, Cu, and Cd, (M. Flieger)
· Targeted drug delivery – the antitumour medications covalently bound with a polymer carrier, (B. Říhová)
· Development of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of herbicides, (J. Masojídek)
· Genetic modification of restricting-modifying enzymes of the Type I for their utilisation in nanobiotechnologies – the molecular motor, a part of biosensors, (M. Weiserová)

INSTITUTE OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚIACH CAS)
Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno

AV0Z40310501 „Advanced analytical techniques for bioanalysis, environmental analysis and nanotechnology“, (2005-2010), the research manager is doc. RNDr. Ludmila Křivánková, CSc.
The overall goal of the plan is to gain new knowledge of both theoretical and applied analytical chemistry to be also used in other fields such as bioanalysis (e.g., genomics, proteomics), environmental science and nanotechnology. Emphasis will be aimed at advances in theoretical principles, instrumentation, and applications of progressive separation and spectral methods of analytical chemistry. The separation branch of the plan comprises the methods employing electric field, sorption, fluid flow, density dependence of a fluid's solvating power, force field, chemical reaction, and their combinations as the driving forces for separation. The spectroscopy branch comprises mass spectrometry, atomic spectroscopy, and the optical detection techniques including new colored and fluorescent standards to be used in the separation methods. The results will be new basic knowledge and applications for medicine, environment protection, food production, and advanced materials.

INSTITUTE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚACH CAS)
250 68 Řež u Prahy

AV0Z40320502 “Design, synthesis and characterisation of clusters, composites, complexes, and other compounds based on inorganic substances; mechanisms and kinetics and their interactions”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Ing. Jana Bludská, CSc.
The research intention relates to the design and preparation of composites and crystalline materials of defined particle sizes, borane clusters, special glass, organic-metallic and intercalating compounds with targeted properties for the use in optoelectronics, magnetic optics, photocatalysis, medicine, and ecology. The characterisation includes the static and kinetic approaches with the aim to define the structure, reactivity and also other properties of prepared compounds. Non covalent interaction of metallic complexes will be used for the molecular differentiation. The description of the interactions of the crystalline and gas phases with solutions and melts will provide for know–how related to new technologies.
Research activities in the area of nanotechnologies take place mainly in the Department of the chemistry of solid substances and intercalating compounds. The following activities are organised:
· Synthesis of nanocomposites based on nanoparticles of metallic oxides in SiO2 matrix by the sol-gel method. Characterisation of the structure, magnetic and optical properties of these materials,
· Synthesis of nanoparticles in binary and multipart metallic oxides by the method of homogenous condensing in water solutions. The prepared materials are tested as photocatalysts and catalysts for the detoxication (the degradation into non toxic products) of combat poisons,
· Synthesis, characterisation and application of “sandwich” pigments with the barrier anticorrosive effect based on mica covered with nanoparticles of metallic oxides,
· Characterisation of nanostructures prepared by chemical reactions initiated by laser,
· Research of porphyria nanostructures, preparation and their chemical and photo-physical properties,
· Synthesis and characterisation of gold and other precious metallic nanoparticles modified on the surface by the isotope 10B in the active carbon shell for the use in the neutron treatment of tumorous diseases.

INSTITUTE OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚEM CAS)
Vídeňská 1083, 142 40 Praha 4

AV0Z50390512 “Molecular, cell and system mechanisms of serious diseases of the human organism, their diagnostics, therapy and pharmaceutical therapy”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Prof. MUDr. Eva Syková, DrSc.
The aim is the research in the area of biomedicine and looking for the possibilities of practical utilisation of gained results in the following fields: Molecular and cell biology, molecular embryology, and pharmacology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuropathology, neuropharmacology, immunopharmacology, gene-toxicology, and teratology. The research is focussed on the study of the cell function mechanisms, sub cellular structures, receptors and mediators, interactions of cells, activities of cell tissues and organs, and pathological changes caused in living organisms by effects of harmful substances in both inner and outer environments. The objective is the finding of diagnostic way and therapy of diseases and to develop them for the practical utilisation. The application areas include healthcare (the therapeutic processes in neurosurgery, traumatology, especially the spinal cord injuries, immunology, ophtalmology, plastic surgery, otolaryngology), the pharmaceutical industry (drugs and diagnostic sets), and hygiene and epidemiology (the assessment of risks by chemical substances for the human population). In the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, there are works organised, which are focussed on:
· Marking of cells with superparamagnetic nanoparticles and their in vivo monitoring with the aid of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),
· In vivo testing of materials based on nanofibres as the reconstruction scaffold for tissues, especially for the central nerve system and the connective tissue (the cartilage).

AV0Z50390703 „New biotechnologies, nanomaterials and stem cells for use in regenerative medicine“,(2007-2013), the research manager is Prof.MUDr. Eva Syková,DrSc
The research intention is focused on the important modern field of regenerative medicine. The techniques for using adult and embryonic stem cells, biomaterials, nanomaterials, new technologies and diagnostic methods is developed. The major aim of the intention is to find effective therapies for serious diseases, currently incurable, and to introduce them into practical use. The results will be used in: neurosurgery (artificial replacements, bridging of defects), traumatology (CNS injury), neurology (Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), immunology (immune system diseases), pediatrics (inborn defects, perinatal injuries), orthopedics (bone and cartilage replacement), ophthalmology (corneal replacement), otolaryngology, stomatology (tooth replacements), anaplasty, dermatology, and others. Development of products for clinical studies, treatment and business is planned. The results will be used by the pharmaucetical industry to develop new diagnostic kits and drugs and to test them on stem cells.

JAROSLAV HEYROVSKÝ INSTITUTE OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚFCH JH CAS)
Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Praha 8

AV0Z40400503 “Structure, reactivity and dynamics in molecular and biomolecular systems: Theory, experiments and applications”,(2005 – 2010), the research manager is Prof. RNDr. Petr Čárský, DrSc.
The objective of the research intention is the identification and clarification of relations existing in between the structure and interactions in molecular and biomolecular systems and their chemical or electrochemical reactivity and physical dynamics. The new thing about this task is based on the experimental approach at the atomic or molecular levels, which is possible thanks to the fast development of spectroscopic and microscopic high definition methods and techniques of the material synthesis at the nanolevel. The subjects of the research are as follows:
· Development and utilisation of quantum chemistry methods in chemical physics, catalysis, and electrochemistry,
· Kinetics and dynamics in chemical processes in the gas phase and on surfaces,
· Structure and properties of molecules and their aggregates,
· Structure, functionality and dynamics of biomembranes,
· Synthesis and structural chemistry of nanoscopic materials,
· Mechanism of catalytic and electrocatalytic processes,
· Sorption and transport phenomena,
· Structure and (photo)electrochemical reactivity of molecules and biomolecules in liquid phases and interphases.

INSTITUTE OF MATERIAL PHYSICS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚFM CAS)
Žižkova 22, 606 62 Brno

AV0Z20410507 “Physical properties of advanced materials in relation with their microstructures and the preparation way”,(2005 – 2010), the research manager is Doc. RNDr. Petr Lukáš, CSc.
The physical properties of the following advanced materials are experimentally and theoretically studied in relation to their microstructures and preparation ways: ultra-fine grain, microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and amorphous materials, intermetallics, monocrystals of superalloys, advanced steels, advanced Mg, Fe, and Ni alloys, shape memory alloys, composites, nanocomposites, metallic laminates, lead free solders, magnetic semiconductors, semi-metallic magnets, magnetic multilayers, and silicides of transition metals. The objective is to clarify, describe and quantify mechanisms in processes and in the development of microstructure taking place in advanced materials during creep, fatigue, and fracturing. Diffusion, thermodynamics, phase structures, electric, and magnetic characteristics will be studied within the relevant scope of temperatures. This all should contribute to the worldwide treasure of knowledge about advanced materials (mechanisms in processes, databases of experimental data and properties) and consequently for the optimising of their preparations.

INSTITUTE OF PLASMA PHYSICS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚFP CAS)
Za Slovankou 3, 182 21 Praha 8

AV0Z20430508 “Physical and chemical processes in plasma, and their applications”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Prof. Ing. Dr. Pavel Chráska, DrSc.
Plasma becomes more and more important in the 21st century. It is involved in many areas of our life. Commencing with the nuclear fusion, plasma technologies and plasma chemistry to laser plasma and the utilisation of discharges in plasma. To improve controls of these plasma applications, we must better understand many basic physical and chemical processes. This is the reason why there will be different kinds of plasma generated and new methods for their study will be developed. The objective is to describe the behaviour of hot plasma in tokamaks, the dense or not balanced plasma in discharges, thermal plasma and its interaction with other states. Experimental measuring will be confronted with theoretical calculations and numerical modelling. The results should have their direct impact on a number of fields – starting with the participation in the ITER project, the ecological cleaning methods, and generation of soft X-rays radiation, plasma technologies and plasma liquidation of wastes to the development of new materials for the extreme conditions of use.
The subjects within the area of research of nanotechnologies are currently the following works:
· Creation of amorphous and nanocrystalline coatings and self-carrying parts of ceramic materials with the aid of plasma spraying by the water stabilised plasma burner (WSP), during which fast solidification occurs as well as the creation of not balanced structures,
· Production of nanocrystalline ceramic parts with the aid of managed crystallisation during suitable thermal processing from the original amorphous parts containing multicomponent ceramic material with the eutectic point,
· Production of general plasma sprays (coatings), the basic building unit of which is a thin circular disk – the so-called splat that is usually made of in parallel arranged column grains going across the splat’s thickness. The cut through the column grains in the plat is typically within the order of tens of nanometres.

INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL PROCESS FUNDAMENTALS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚCHP CAS)
Rozvojová 135, 165 02 Praha 6

AV0Z40720504 “Research of multiphase reaction systems for the design of processes in the area of synthesis and preparation of new materials, energy and protection of the environment”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Prof. Ing. Jiří Hanika, DrSc..
The research objective of intention is the identification of sets’ characteristics at the molecular level and their integration with phenomenology knowledge related to the system behaviour in connection with process conditions. The main research directions are as follows: The study of balanced behaviour of multiphase sets with chemical reactions; the thermo and hydrodynamics of multiphase systems under extreme conditions; fundamentals of extraction, sorption, and membrane separation processes and the processes using supercritical liquids; the dynamics in transport processes in the chemical, electrochemical, combustion, and biotechnological reactors; the clarification of mechanisms in catalysed reactions and of destruction reactions of toxic organic substances; the preparation of new materials by reactions induced by microwave and laser radiation. The results will allow for the quantitative description of behaviours of reacting multiphase sets with the aid of mathematical models usable for the optimal design of processing facilities observing requirements on the maximal environmental friendliness. The research in the area of nanotechnologies focus especially on nanoporous materials, nanocatalysis and synthesis of nanoparticles, e.g. with aerosol processes.

INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚJF CAS) 250 68 Řež

AV0Z10480505 “Nuclear physics and related fields in the basic, applied and interdisciplinary research”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Ing. Jan Dobeš, CSc.
There is the experimental study running of the strongly inter-reactive mass in collisions of heavy ions, remote nuclei from the stability line, nuclear reactions for the astrophysics, and the weight of a neutrino from the electron spectroscopy. They expect the utilisation of nuclear analytical methods and neutron diffraction in the research of condensed substances and materials and in the animate science. There will be also research and development of radio-pharmaceuticals organised. The work objective is the extension of knowledge about the strongly inter-reacting systems and applications and the implementation of nuclear methods in other scientific and technological fields. Department of neutron physics, the Laboratory of nuclear analytical methods gets involved in the area of micro and nanoscience in the following fields:
- Preparation and characterising of thin layers of hybrid materials based on carbonaceous allotrops and transition metals, e.g. C60-Ni (hybrid materials of the C60-Ni kind show interesting structural properties, often in the form of spontaneously organising systems in sub microscopic area),
- Preparation of LIPSS structures (the co-operation with FZÚ CAS),
- Utilisation of nuclear analytical methods (PIXE – proton induced X-ray emission, PTT – particle transmission technique).

The Department of theoretical physics. Prof. RNDr. Pavel Exner, DrSc. is currently involved in mathematical models of nanosystems.

INSTITUTE OF MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚMCH CAS)
Heyrovského nám. 2, 162 06 Praha 6

AV0Z40500505 “Progressive macromolecular materials and supramolecular systems: The synthesis and the study of properties, phenomena, and possibilities in the use for special applications and modern technologies”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Doc. Ing. Karel Ulbrich, DrSc.
The research is focussed on the managed synthesis of polymer substances and supramolecular systems of synthetic macromolecules and hybrid systems of synthetic and biological macromolecules leading to products with a unified and defined structure and specific usable properties and on the development of new theories explaining physical and chemical behaviour of the studied systems. The attention is focussed on the study of arranged systems created by mutual interactions of synthetic or synthetic and natural macromolecules and the low-molecular substances. The study takes place at the atomic, molecular and supramolecular levels. From the potential applications point of view, the attention will be paid to the development of new intelligent materials reacting to surrounding environmental stimulation, to materials for bioengineering and biomimetics with the stress put on the tissue engineering, bioconjugates for the drug transport and gene therapy, materials applicable in membranes for separation processes and fuel cells, materials and systems for sensors, photonics and microelectronics. The research of technical polymers will focus on the development of hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites and polymer nanostructured materials, on the improvement of usable properties of polymer mixtures and on the development of recyclable and biodegradable materials and the materials created from renewable natural resources. The Institute organises relatively extensive research focussed on nanobiotechnologies, nanomedicine, organic nanoelectronics, nanomaterials (polymer nanocomposites and nanostructures), and on the development in nanoscience and experimental methods applicable in macromolecular nanotechnologies.

INSTITUTE OF MOLECULAR PLANT BIOLOGY of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚMBR CAS)
Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice

AV0Z50510513 “Research of the structure of genetic plant information, pathogens at the molecular level, induction, and the analysis of targeted genome changes and plastom, and the study of photosynthetic processes and heritability reactions in the interaction with the environment and pathogens”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Doc. Ing. Josef Špak, DrSc.
The intention objectives are as follows: 1) The molecular organisation of the plant genome and chromosomes and the mechanism of gene expression: Sequencing of the repetitive DNA genome of vetchy plants, the genetic and physical mapping; the functional genomics, the transgenosis and molecular biodiversity of flax and hop Arabidopsis; the analysis of the structure and function of chimeric cell RNAs, aberrant RNA and dsRNA in relation to the gene expression; the transformation of genomes and plastom for the purpose of studies of the expression of nuclear genes, the function of the photosystem II and the production of foreign proteins, 2) Molecular interaction of plant–pathogens: the variability of genomes, the structure and functions of viruses, viroids and phytoplasma; the mechanism of gene silencing and “antisensing”; the development of high performance pathogen detection methods, 3) Research of the photosynthesis: primary processes in transfers of light energy to energy and chemical bonds; the structure and the function of reaction centres of the complex photosystems II; the gas exchanges and the fixation effect of carbon oxide on the regulation of photosynthesis.
Works in the area of nanotechnologies:
The Department of molecular cytogenetics organises the research in the area of the molecular DNA analysis, the research of repetitive sequences in the Vicia family and other kinds of vetchy plants. The DNA microarrays are utilised. The Department of plant virology focuses on the area of diagnostics and molecular recognition – the issues in the development of biomarkers for the detection of fruit viruses, again with the use of the arrays technology. The Department of photosynthesis studies the molecular mechanisms in the photosynthesis and the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. A single molecule spectroscopy is utilised.

INSTITUTE OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚPT CAS)
Královopolská 147, 612 64 Brno

AV0Z20650511 “Development of experimental methods for the studies of physical properties of matter and their applications in advanced technologies”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is RNDr. Luděk Frank, DrSc.
The research intention is focussed on the areas of applied physics and technical science. The objective is the development of methodologies for the gaining of images and spectral information from atomic, molecular and cell structures, including the scanning and processing of biosignals, and the selected applications in biology, medicine and material science. The electron beams generated, controlled and detected with the newly developed processes should be used for the studies of substances and holographic phenomena and for the connection and micromachining of materials. The quantum radiation of light generators will be used for the creation of different kinds of optical traps for the non destructive handling of microobjects. There will be highly coherent lasers for the metrology of optical frequencies and interferometric measuring developed. The potential of the nuclear magnetic resonance methods for the study of living matter will be used and extended with the creation of image contrast by rare gases polarised laser and with the techniques of the spectroscopic imagining.
The Institute has already for years participated in the development of different methods used in the area of nanotechnologies. They are traditionally new imagining methods for electron microscopes and the microlithographic technologies utilising the electron lithograph and deposition of thin layers by the magnetron sputtering. The new original methods of the laser interferometry allow for the measurements of length changes in tenths of nanometres and there have been instruments designed (optical tweezers) that utilise the mechanical effect of the focussed laser beams for the space trapping and transfer of nanoobjects in the liquid environment.

INSTITUTE OF PHOTONICS AND ELECTRONICS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚRE CAS)
Chaberská 57, 182 51 Praha 8

AV0Z20670512 “Materials, structures, systems, and signals in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Ing. Vlastimil Matějec, CSc.
The research task focuses, within the Institute orientation on the basic research in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics, in the three following areas – photonic structures, materials for optoelectronics, and systems for the generation, transfer and processing of signals. Within the area of photonic structures, the research focuses on the perspective passive, active and non linear photonic structures and systems using the principles of fibre and planar waveguides, diffractive structures and photonic crystals for the application in optical communications and sensors. The material research for optoelectronics focuses on the preparation and diagnostics for the new materials, structures and nanostructures usable mainly in special optical waveguides, radiation sources, optical amplifiers, detectors and solar cells. In the area of systems and signals, there are processes in the generation, transfer and processing of signals researched within the etalons of frequency and time, and in multiuser communication networks and speech systems.

INSTITUTE OF ROCK STRUCTURE AND MECHANICS of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚSMH CAS)
V Holešovičkách 41, 182 09 Praha 8

AV0Z30460519 “Research of properties of geomaterials, the development of methods for their environmental use and the interpretation of geodynamic processes”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Ing. Karel Balík, CSc.
Research of natural geomaterials (minerals in the soil or mineral environment), artificially designed geomaterials (geopolymers), and related materials based on carbon and silicon within the wide spectrum of sizes of structural parts – the nanometric, micrometric, milimetre, metre, and kilometre sizes. Chemical, mineralogical and petrographic consistence, mechanical, physical and physically–chemical properties of the researched materials and their heterogeneity, especially when related to not connected areas, and their space and time development. Impacts of the thermal and field force effects on the properties and the behaviour of materials. The multidisciplinary research will focus mainly on: 1) The assessment of dangerous impacts of natural and by the human activities caused geodynamic processes, 2) The dynamics in the Czech massif and in the structure of the Earth crust, 3) The environmental utilisation of raw materials also in connection with the liquidation of hazardous wastes, 4) The development of materials of not traditional precursors: biomaterials, heat resistant, construction, building, and sorption materials.

INSTITUTE OF SYSTEMIC BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. (ÚSBE CAS)
Na Sádkách 7, 370 05 České Budějovice


“Space and functional dynamics in biological, ecological and social–economic systems in the interaction with the global climate change”,

(2005 – 2010), the research manager is Prof. RNDr. Michal V. Marek, DrSc. The subject of the research intention is the study of the environment as the natural–social system, which develops within space and time. Natural systems are characterised with their space and functional dynamics, which could be monitored, after some simplification, on the basis of the analysis of the energy flow, of substances and information characteristic for the given system. The effect of the global change is understood not only as the important environmental factor, but also as the impulse for the introduction of new biotechnologies and nanotechnologies.
Department of biomagnetic techniques in the Sector of the physical biology is involved, in the area of nanotechnologies, in the preparation of biocompatible magnetic liquids, in preparations and the study and the utilisation of composite materials based on biological structures (e.g. microbic cells, lignocellulose materials) modified by magnetic liquids, in the preparation and utilisation of magnetic biopolymer microparticles, where the magnetic part is made of magnetic nanoparticles, and in the study of the design of magnetic biocompatible polymer nanoparticles in the role of potential drug carriers.

Provider: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS)

CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAHA, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (MFF UK)
Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha 1

MSM0021620834 “Physics of the condensed phase: New materials and technologies”, (2005 – 2010). the research manager is Prof. RNDr. Pavel Höschl, DrSc.
Research is focussed on the area of physics of the condensed phase, on a number of materials with unique physical properties ranging from highly pure materials for electronics, superconductors, materials with low dimensional structures to the synthetic diamond. This relates to the research of new technologies, which usually utilise molecular beams in the ultra-high vacuum, reactions taking place in plasma and high performance microwave generators, or in high temperatures and pressures. Works will focus also on materials, which do not exist in nature, e.g. supergrids, delta-quantum structures, and quantic wires and dots.

MSM 0021620835 “Physics of molecular, macromolecular and biological systems”, (2005 – 2010), the research manager is Prof. RNDr. Jan Hála, DrSc.
The complex research of physical processes in molecular, macromolecular and biological systems extends the former successfully resolved research intention MSM 113200001 “Physics of biological systems and synthetic macromolecular structures”. The research focuses mainly on the physical behaviour of natural and modified nucleotides, natural and artificial photosynthetic systems, photosensitisers of yeasts, polymer networks, including nanocomposites and polyelectrolytic hydrogels. The theoretical interpretation will use the quantum theory, quantum-chemical calculations and modelling for the study of physical properties of biologically important complexes, intercalates and macromolecular structures. The existing spectroscopic methods are further developed and applied for the research of a structure, function, interaction, and dynamics of biological and macromolecular structures at the levels of molecules, macromolecules, membranes and cells.

CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAHA, 1st Faculty of Medicine (1st LF UK)
Kateřinská 32, 121 08 Praha 2

MSM0021620806 “Molecular biology and cell pathology in standard and selected clinically serious pathological processes”, (2005 – 2011), the research manager Prof. MUDr. Milan Elleder, DrSc.
The research intention is represented by twelve basic biomedical areas focussed on the selected problems in standard and pathological situations. The superior objective is the mutual convergency of biomedically focussed research workplaces at the same molecular and cell levels of methodological centres as the necessary prerequisite for the perspective biomedical research. In such a way oriented research, the important source of relevant information about cell processes operating in standard and pathological situations and for their understanding is the development of new therapeutic processes. The priorities are the structural biological studies of the nucleus compartment, especially the description of the nucleus structure from the rRNA synthesis and replication of ribosomal genes points of view, the studies of the dynamics in chromosome territories in connection with their replication and the analysis of the mutual positions of the chromosomes in the nucleus, the analysis of the position of the “linker” histone in the chromatin fibre, the study of the function of the Cajal element and of the nuclei spots, the modification and remodelling of the chromatin in the regulation of transcription, the identification of new proteins, etc.

MSM0021620808 “Molecular-biological, genetic and epigenetic aspects in the creation and development of model tumours in adult age. The importance for epidemiology, early diagnostics and the treatment”, (2005 – 2011), the research manager is Prof. MUDr. Pavel Klener, DrSc.
Research works will bring new knowledge for the field of the cell and molecular biology and physiology, which are important for the basic research (the knowledge of some of the regulation mechanisms in growth, differentiation and transformation of cells), but also for clinics (cells for the cytostatic treatment). The research task results should allow for the identification of molecular goals and cell regulation processes allowing for the prediction, in time diagnostics, continuous monitoring of the development of the illness, etc. Another objective is the design of new biologically active substances interfering with the tumorous progression both at the level of the transformed cell itself and at the level of the impact on the immune system.
Works having the character of bionanotechnology or nanomedicine are done in the following institutes and laboratories:
The Institute of pathological physiology develops bioaffinity, immunoaffinity and enzyme reactors as parts of microchip equipment for the finding of auto-antigen epitopes. There are magnetic micro or nanoparticles used for the preparation of enzyme reactors.
Laboratory of the gene expression in the Institute of Cell Biology and Pathology organises the research of the function organisation in the cell nucleus. Laboratory of the molecular haematology in the 1st Internal Clinic does the molecular diagnostics of haematologic malignant illnesses with the use of PCR (the polymer chain reaction).
The Institute of pharmacology, the Department of clinical pharmacology, organises the DNA analysis of genes for the metabolism and transport of xenobiotics.
The Research angiology laboratory in 2nd Internal Clinic provides for the separation of lipoproteins and characterises their sub fraction (5-1200nm). The Institute of hereditary metabolic defects uses in its studies of hereditary metabolic illnesses the techniques of molecular biology (the analysis of genes connected with the studied illness – the sequencing of PCR, the position cloning, the study of the gene expression, and protein studies). Laboratory for the endocrinology and metabolism in 3rd Internal Clinic, they focus on the DNA analysis in the research of hyperlipoproteinaemia, arterial hypertension and diabetes.

Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno

MSM0021622410 “Physical and chemical properties of advanced materials and structures”, (2005-2011), the research manager is Prof. RNDr. Josef Humlíček, CSc.
The subject of the research intention is the study of new materials and phenomena, which require the complex physical and also chemical approach. The intention focuses on (1) the self-assembled nanostructures, supergrids, quantum wells, wires and dots, (2) high temperature superconductors, (3) technologically important bulk materials and their impurities, (4) polymers with the silicon spine, (5) thermodynamic properties, phase transformations, diffusions and the arrangement processes in the advanced intermetallic compounds and thin layers, and (6) the preparation of materials by non conventional methods and the study of these processes’ mechanisms.

MSM0021622411 “Study and application of plasma-chemical reactions in non isothermal low temperature plasma and its interactions with the surface of solid substances”, (2005-2010), the research manager is Prof. RNDr. Jan Janča, DrSc.
The research intention focuses on the study of the kinetics in plasma-chemical processes by the methods of optical, weight and microwave diagnostics, research and methodology related to the technology of plasma-chemical application of thin polymer, nanocomposite, super hard, semipermeable, and semi-sorption layers and the research of mechanical, chemical and electric properties of prepared deposits, and other areas.

The Department of physical electronics organises the preparation of nanostructured and nanocomposite materials by plasma technologies, especially by the plasma-chemical deposition from the gas phase (PECVD). At the same time, they organise the analysis of materials, including the ultra-thin surface layers, and use the depth-sensitive methods.
The Institute of the Physics of Condensed Substances founded in the period 1996-2000 the Laboratory of thin layers and nanostructures. Its activities progressively merged with the activities of the Institute, which are focussed on the experimental and theoretic physics of solid substances. In this connection, there is also the research in the area of semiconductor nanostructures, modelling of small-size structures, and experimental study, with the aid of spectroscopic methods and AFM, organised.

CZECH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY IN PRAHA, Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering (FJFI ČVUT) Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1

MSM6840770021 “Material diagnostics”, (2005-2010), the research manager is Prof. Ing. Stanislav Vratislav, CSc.
The subject of the intention is the basic research of mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and other physical properties of solid substances and of their relations to the structural and sub structural parameters. The works focus on relations between structure-sensitive substance properties, their technological history and usable parameters.

MSM6840770022 “Laser systems, radiation and modern optical applications”, (2005-2010), the research manager is Prof. Ing. Pavel Fiala, CSc.
The subjects of the intention are the modern laser systems and the study of selected optical interaction processes within the coherent or not coherent electromagnetic radiation within the environment of a wide spectrum (from XUV to IR). The objective is to gain new knowledge and to understand better the new processes of optical methods, in optoelectronics, technologies, medicine, and also in the further research undertaken within the optical physics. Nanotechnology issues in the above-mentioned intentions relate to the following areas:
Department of materials: The works in this area could be divided into two following main directions:
1. The study of relations between microstructural parameters and mechanical properties of different kinds of construction materials (the preparation of materials with ultra-fine grains, alloys suitable for hardening, the study of the degradation of solid solution in model alloys, the utilisation of methods of the transmission electron microscopy with the atomic resolution and the auto-emission ion microscopy with the tomographic atomic probe).
2. The study of the first stages in the growing fatigue cracks in relation to the characteristic structural parameters, the monitoring of construction materials in the nanostructural area.
Department of physical electronics: The research in the area of nanotechnologies relates to:
1. The utilisation of nanostructures in the quantum electronics (the light generation on quantic dots),
2. The utilisation of nanostructures for the light recording and formation (the diffractive effects, the recording of optical information based on nanocrystals AgX and photopolymers, the study of photonic crystals and effects of their aperiodicity, the not linear optical properties of nanostructural systems,
3. The chemical creation of nanoparticles for optoelectronic and biologic purposes, especially the semiconducting and dielectric, possibly also the magnetic purposes. The description and modelling of their properties.
Department of Solid Matter Engineering. The research focuses as follows:
1. The study of macro and microstructures of technically important materials and optical properties of solid substances, recently also the issues within the studies of the properties of polymers and polymer nanocomposites in relation to the technological processing and the resulting properties (the preferential orientation on the studies determining the share of the crystalline phase in the amorphous matrix),
2. Improvements in methodologies and diagnostics related to technically important materials, the study leading to the clarification of influences acting on the phase transitions in thin layers; They are the methods like, for example, TEM, SEM, XRD (the morphology of composites), the diffraction of neutrons and the X-ray radiation, light dispersion, and also the silicates, organic silicates and oxides of transition metals; The measuring of photoluminescence, thermoluminescence and optical absorption of pure and spectroscopic active ions (Cr3+, Mn4+, Fe3+, etc.), doped thin layers, thin layer structures of BaxSr1-xTiO3, and other materials of the perovskite kind, which allow for their utilisation,
3. The development of simulation programmes for the study of transport properties of semiconductor heterostructures.

Thákurova 7, 166 23 Praha 6

MSM6840770003 “Development of algorithms for computer simulations and their application in the engineering”, (2005 – 2011), the research manager is Prof. Ing. Zdeněk Bittnar, DrSc.
The main topic in the research intention is the multilevel modelling and simulation (VMS). The primary VMS applications are in the material engineering. VMS serves for the understanding of the most important properties of materials and structures. The description of materials (the constitutive relations) starts at the nano level and progressively transfers to the macro level. In addition to the description of the mechanical behaviour of materials, it relates also to the description of the behaviour of structures and their mutual interactions. Even the very advanced mathematical model cannot predict well the reality, unless reliable entry data are put into it. For VMS, there will be non standard data gained about the mechanical properties, from the micro level down to the nano level as well as other information.
The Microscopic laboratory in the Department of ground constructions organises the theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of structure on deformation processes and on the disturbance of solid substances (especially the polycrystals), the modelling and microscopic analysis of deformations of the polycrystalline structure and the study of the thin layers’ toughness (about 500nm).
The Department of mechanics organises the research of possibilities of the applications of nanotechnologies in the production of concrete and develops the methodology for the nanoindentation during the research of cement paste properties.

BRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FSI VUT)
Technická 2, 616 69 Brno

MSM0021630508 “Inorganic nanomaterials and nanostructures: Creation, analysis, and properties”, (2005-2010), the research manager is Prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Cihlář, CSc.
The research intention is focussed on the creation and research of nanoparticle and nanostructure materials, especially not metallic materials and their composites with metals and polymers, but also on the creation and research of low dimensional structures like nanowires and nanodots. The subject of the research intention is the description of physical and chemical interactions in nanoparticle and nanostructured systems and gaining new knowledge about the unique properties, which result from these relations, especially in multi phase ones from the point of view of the behaviour of nanomaterials and nanostructures, their surfaces and interfaces. The solution of this requires the research and development of processes and facilities for the creation of the required structures, the design of new and modified already existing methods for the experimental research of nanostructures and for the creation of a theoretical explanation of observed phenomena on the basis of processed gained information.
The works in the Institute of Physical Engineering are focussed on the creation of nanostructures with the aid of SPM for purposes of nanoelectronics and plasmonics, on the preparation and characterisation of ultra-thin layers, multilayers and the 1D-0D nanostructures with the aid of PVD. There is also the analysis of microstructures organised by the optical microscopy (BF, DF, DIC, and the polarisation microscopy), the confocal microscopy, and LCIM. They develop photoluminescent/reflection optical microscopy and spectroscopy. The works in the Institute of Material Science and Engineering:
Within the Section of ceramics, they do the following works: The synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles in non conventional conditions (the hydrothermal syntheses, syntheses in ultrasound and microwave fields), the preparation of nanostructured coatings, the preparation of the nanostructured bulk ceramics, the study of surface properties of nanoparticles, and the study of microstructure and the properties of nanostructured coatings and units.
In the Section of the structure and phase analysis, they organise the structural the TEM, STEM, SEM, X-ray, and other analyses.
In the Institute of the Mechanical Engineering Technology, in the Section of machining technology, Prof. Ing. Bohumil Bumbálek, CSc. is involved in the monitoring and assessment of integrity of the surfaces of parts finished with the ultra precise machining methods (the nanomachining).