Contribution results from an evaluation carried out by preparation of the publication “Nanotechnologies in the Czech Republic – 2008”, which is available on this page.
The data about financial means has been extracted from the Central Register of Projects (CEP - www.vyzkum.cz). Following nanotechnologies nomenclature is used at the analysis.1. Nanomaterials
a) Nanopowder materials, nanoparticles, quantum dots, and nanofibres
b) Composite materials containing nanoparticles
c) Materials with carbon nanotubes or fullerenes
d) Thin layers, nanolayers, and nanocoatings
e) Nanostructural metals and alloys
g) Polymer nanocomposites and polymer nanomaterials
2. Nanotechnology for the storage and transmission of information, micro- and nanoelectronics
a) Nanoelectronics, materials and equipment
c) Optic materials, structures and equipment
d) Magnetic materials and equipment, spintronics
e) Organic photonics and bioelectronics
f) MEMS, NEMS
3. Nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine
a) Encapsulating of drugs
b) Targeted transport of medicine
c) Tissue engineering
d) Biocompatible and bio-analogical materials and layers
e) Molecular analysis and DNA analysis
f) Biological-inorganic interface and hybrids
g) Diagnostics and molecular recognition
4. Nanotechnology for applications in sensors
a) Sensors utilising nanomaterials
b) Biomolecular sensors
5. Nanotechnology in the (electric) chemical processing technologies
a) Filtration, membranes, molecular sieves, and zeolites
b) Catalysis or electrodes with nanostructural surfaces
c) Chemical synthesis, supramolecular chemistry
6. Long-term research with the wide spectrum of applications
b) Quantum physics, quantum phenomena in nanosizes, and nanophysics
c) Nano- and mesoscopic systems
d) Chemical materials and processes - nanochemistry
e) Ultra-precise engineering
7. Instruments and facilities, research and applications of technologies
a) Analytical instruments, methods, techniques, and research
b) Manufacture (preparation) of nanopowders (nanoparticles) and their processing
c) Facilities and methods for the creation of layers and coatings
d) Facilities and methods for the creation of objects (patterning, ECAP, fibre fabrication, etc.)
e) Ultra-precise machining and nanometrology
8. Health, ecological, ethical, social and other aspects of nanotechnologies
a) Toxicity of nanoparticles
b) Environmental aspects
c) Social and ethical aspects
f) Roadmaps and foresight
g) Popularisation of nanotechnologies
h) Trade in nanoproducts
There are 229 programme projects in the total focussing on the research of nanotechnologies in the Czech Republic in 2008 (see also subcategory “Projects” on this page).
Their total budget is CZK 793.254 million, thereof CZK 646.491 million (81.5%) is contributed from the state budget. The support from the state budget is provided by Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (AS CR), Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (GA CR), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS), and Ministry of Industry and Trada (MIT) within 16 programmes. When it comes to the topical focus of the solved projects, almost all programmes utilise the bottom-up method, which assumes that the project’s focus is up to the proposing party. Only the programme of AS CR “Nanotechnology for the Society”, and partly the programme of MIT “Permanent Prosperity”, presented the projects’ proposing parties with priorities on which they should focus.
1. Programmes of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
AS CR supports the research of nanotechnologies within the four following programmes:
• Nanotechnology for the Society (code KA)
• Support of targeted research projects (1Q)
• Grants with the distinct exploratory character focussing on the area of research developed at this time mostly in AS CR (IA)
• Junior exploratory grants (KJ)
Table No. I shows that the programme “Nanotechnology for the Society” is the dominant one. Research teams get through this programme almost a half of all funds (48.4%) allocated by all providers to the research of nanotechnologies from the state budget of the Czech Republic. Projects solved within the other three programmes have smaller scopes and have the character of the basic research. They are usually solved by a single researcher.
Table No. I
|Program ||Number of projects ||Total,in million CZK ||From the state budget,in million CZK ||Share in %|
|KA ||38 ||358.284 ||313.076 ||87.4|
|1Q ||5 ||7.995 ||7.995 ||100|
|IA ||28|| ||22.897 ||22.897 ||100|
|KJ ||9 ||3.772 ||3.772 ||100|
|Total ||80 ||392.948 ||347.740 ||88.5|
We will pay a special attention to the programme “Nanotechnology for the Society” because of its importance for the research of nanotechnologies.
1.1. PROGRAMME “NANOTECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SOCIETY”
The provider – Academy of Sciences of CR – has announced the four following sub programmes:
1) Sub programme “Nanoparticles, nanofibres and nanocomposite materials”
2) Sub programme “Nanobiology and nanomedicine”
3) Sub programme “Nano-macro interface”
4) Sub programme “New phenomena and materials for nanoelectronics”
These sub programmes correspond, according to the nomenclature with the areas 1, 3, 7, and 2. The funds allocated by providers to the projects solved within the mentioned sub programmes in 2008 are presented in Table No. II.
Table No. II
|Sub programme ||Number of projects ||Total, in million CZK ||From the state budget, in million CZK ||Share in %|
|1 ||8 ||56.784 ||45.790 ||80.6|
|2 ||14 ||162.482 ||136.426 ||84.0|
|3 ||6 ||57.686 ||52.102 ||90.3|
|4 ||10 ||81.332 ||78.758 ||96.8|
|Tota||l ||38 ||358.284 ||313.076 ||87.4|
The Table No. II shows that the most finance is contributed to the sub programme 2 (45.3% of the total funds allocated to the programme), then to the sub programme 4 (22.7%), while the rest is almost equally distributed between the sub programmes 1 and 3.
The share of state contributions grows in accordance with the programme conditions, from the sub programme 1 to the sub programme 4. The practically useful results are expected especially from the resolved projects in the sub programmes 1 and 2.
The average project budget in the programme “Nanotechnology for the Society” in 2008 is CZK 9.430 million (the total funds). The four following projects in the sub programme 2 deviate from this average, when it comes to their financial costs:
• KAN200200651 “Nanoparticle and supramolecular systems for the targeted transport of medication”, 07/2006-12/2010, the head researcher is Prof. RNDr. Blanka Říhová, DrSc., Institute of Microbiology of AS CR, Praha, CZK 17.905 million, 10 co-researchers.
• KAN200520703 “The use of ultrasound in nanomedicine”, 01/2007-12/2011, the head researcher is Doc. Ing. Jiří Neužil, CSc., Biotechnology Institute of AS CR, Praha, CZK 16.550 million, 8 co-researchers.
• KAN200520704 “New nanoparticles for the ultrastructural diagnostics”, 01/2007-12/2011, the researcher is Doc. RNDr. Pavel Hozák, DrSc., Institute of Molecular Genetics of AS CR, Praha, CZK 17.699 million, 4 co-researchers.
• KAN200520801 “Targeted expression and transport of bioactive molecules”, 01/2008 – 12/2012, the head researcher is Mgr. David Staněk, PhD., Institute of Molecular Genetics of AS CR, Praha, CZK 15.718 million, 3 co-researchers.
The following 2 projects in the sub programme 3 have got the biggest budget:
• KAN301370701 “Nanostructured macroscopic systems – preparation technology and characterising”, 01/2007-12/2011, the researcher is Prof. RNDr. Miroslav Hrabovský, DrSc., Palacky University Olomouc, Faculty of Science, CZK 21.079 million, 2 co-researchers.
• KAN300100801 “Multifunctional metallic bulk materials with nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain structures”, 01/2008 – 12/2012, the head researcher is Prof. Ing. Pavel Lejček, DrSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, Praha, CZK 16.892 million, 3 co-researchers.
The following project in the sub programme 4 has got decisively the biggest budget:
• KAN400100701 “Functional hybrid semiconductor and metal nanosystems with organic substances (FUNS)”, 01/2007-12/2011, the researcher is RNDr. Bohuslav Rezek, PhD., Institute of Physics of AS CR, Praha, CZK 29.351 million, 4 co-researchers.
Individual projects in the programme “Nanotechnology for the Society” have been assigned numbers and letters, according to the nomenclature. The result of this analysis is presented in Table No. III. The Table No. III presents some interesting information:
- The biggest number of projects and the biggest volume of funds concentrate in the areas 1 (nanomaterials) and 3 (nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine)
- There are together with the area 2 (nanoelectronics and photonics) 31 projects, i.e. 81.6% of all programme projects.
- The level of the state support is high in the case of all projects (88.85%). The highest one is, surprisingly, in the area 2 - nanobiology and nanomedicine (95.5%)
- When it comes to the specific focuses of the projects in individual programme areas, the most projects and funds concentrate on the research of nanopowders, nanofibres, etc., on the research of nanolayers, the research of the controlled transport of medication, on nanodiagnostics, and on the research of nano and mesoscopic systems
- Projects in the programme completely ignore nanotechnologies in the area of engineering chemical technologies
- The programme projects also ignore the health, ethical and social aspects of nanotechnologies.
However, we must stress that this analysis relates to the year 2008 and the situation in future years could be different.
Table No. III
|Nomenclature ||Number of projects ||Total, in million CZK ||From the state budget,in million CZK ||Share in %|
|1a ||5 ||32.812 ||27.477 |
|1d ||4 ||42.773 ||36.855 |
|1e ||1 ||16.892 ||15.103 |
|1f ||1 ||1.503 ||1.403|
|1g ||3 ||8.878 ||6.866|
|Total 1 ||14 ||102.858 ||87.704 ||85.2|
|2a ||2 ||16.726 ||16.226 |
|2c ||1 ||12.116 ||11.000 |
|2d ||1 ||10.190 ||10.190 |
|2e ||1 ||7.874 ||7.387 |
|Total 2 ||5 ||46.906 ||44.803 ||95.5|
|3b ||2 ||33.623 ||28.138 |
|3c ||1 ||8.054 ||6.808|
|3d ||2 ||30.845 ||26.903 |
|3e ||3 ||18.624 ||15.728 |
|3g ||4 ||43.893 ||37.487|
|Total 3 ||12 ||135.039 ||115.064 ||85.2|
|4a ||1 ||10.828 ||9.084|
|4b ||2 ||14.875 ||12.642 |
|Total 4 ||3 ||25.703 ||21.726 ||82.8|
|5 ||0 ||0 ||0|
|Total 6c ||2 ||38.402 ||35.043 ||91.2|
|7b ||1 ||6.383 ||6.043 |
|7c ||1 ||2.993 ||2.693|
|Total 7 ||2 ||9.376 ||8.736 ||93.2|
|TOTAL ||38 ||358.284 ||313.076 ||88.8|
2. Programmes by the Grant Agency of CR
GA CR supports research of nanotechnologies with the three following programmes:
• Standard grants (GA)
• Post doctorate projects (GP)
• EUROCORES (GE)
The review of funds allocated to researchers in 2008 is presented in Table No. IV.
In 2008, GA CR supports in the programme “Standard Grants” 3 - 4-year long, exceptionally 5 years long, projects focussed on the basic research with the 100% subsidy of the average value of CZK 1 million (it provides subsidies within the range from CZK 0.169 to CZK 2.595 million in 2008).
The solved projects cover, with a varied intensity, all areas of the nomenclature.
- They are 15 projects in the area 1 (nanomaterials), thereof 5 projects in the sub area 1a and 4 projects in the sub area 1d
- They are 4 projects in the area 2 (nanoelectronics and photonics), thereof 3 projects in the sub area 2d
- They are 8 projects in the area 3 (nanobiotechnology), thereof 8 projects in the sub areas 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f, and 3g
- It is 1 project in the area 4 (sensors) in the sub area 4a
- They are 7 projects in the area 5 (nanotechnologies for chemistry), thereof 3 projects in the sub area 5b and two ones in the sub areas 5a and 5c
- They are 16 projects in the area 6 (nanophysics and nanochemistry), thereof 2 projects in the sub area 6a, 7 projects in 6b, 1 project in 6c, 4 projects in 6d, and 2 projects in 6e
- They are 7 projects in the area 7 (instruments, methods, and technologies), thereof 3 projects in the sub area 7b, 2 projects in 7c and 1 project in 7a and 1 project in 7d.
No projects have been focussing on the sub areas 2a, 2c, 2f, 3a, 3b, 4b, 5d, 5e, 7e, and 8. The above information shows that projects of the basic research character supported by GA CR within the programme GA, but also within the programmes GP and GE are very diverse, have limited scope, and thus also limited importance. With some exceptions, one project is solved by a sole researcher. Ambitious objectives of most projects cannot be successfully completed within the expected period with the allocated funds. The clear problem of the nanotechnological research by GA CR is the non existence of the beforehand determined priorities on which the researchers would have to concentrate.
Table No. IV
|Programme ||Number of projects ||Total, in million CZK ||From the state budget, in million CZK ||Share in %|
|GA ||58 ||58.949 ||58.949 ||100|
|GP ||9 ||3.135 ||3.135 ||100|
|GE ||3 ||3.579 ||3.579 ||100|
|Total ||70 ||65.663 ||65.663 ||100|
3. Programmes by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR
MEYS supports research of nanotechnologies with the six following programmes:
• Research Centres (1M)
• Basic Research Centres (LC)
• Healthy and High Quality Life (2B)
• EUREKA (OE)
• COST (OC)
• Contact (ME)
The review of funds allocated to the researchers in 2008 is presented in Table No. V.
3.1. PROGRAMMES 1M AND LC
In 2005, there were activities of the so-called research centres started with the support by MEYS. They have been founded for the solution of different scientific and technological problems. Their founding is considered an important contribution to the Czech science, research and development.
Research centres 1M focus mostly on the applied research and development, while the centres of the LC kind focus on the basic research. The centres 1M were founded in two stages and their activities should terminate in 2009. The centres LC were founded in three stages and the last centres should finalise their activities in 2011.
There are currently 36 centres 1M and 51 centres LC developing research activities. We found, when the objectives of the centres were analysed, that 8 centres 1M and 8 centres LC were fully or partly focussing on the research of nanotechnologies. In the opinion of the authors of this publication, the following centres fully focus on the research of nanotechnologies:
• 1M0512 “Research centre of powdered nanomaterials”, 1/2005-12/2009, the head researcher is Prof. RNDr. Miroslav Mašláň, CSc., Palacky University Olomouc, the total costs in 2008 equal CZK 17.500 million, thereof CZK 15.750 million from the state budget, the nomenclature 1a.
- Textilní zkušební ústav, s.p. (Institute of Textile Testing), Brno, RNDr. Pavel Malčík
- Institute of Physics of Materials of AS CR, Brno, Ing. Oldřich Schneeweiss, DrSc.
• 1M0577 “Research centre of nanosurface engineering”, 1/2005-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing. František Peterka, PhD., ATG, s.r.o., Praha, the total costs in 2008 equal CZK 16.210 million, thereof CZK 14.587 million from the state budget, the nomenclature 1d.
- Technical University in Liberec, Ing. Aleš Kolouch, PhD.
- University of Chemical Technology in Praha, Doc. Ing. Josef Krýsa, Dr.
- J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, Praha, RNDr. Jaromír Jirkovský, CSc.
- Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of AS CR, Husinec-Řež, Ing. Jan Šubrt, CSc.
Table No. V
|Program ||Number of projects ||Total, in million CZK ||From the state budget, in million CZK ||Share in %|
|1M ||8 ||74.138 ||66.309 ||89.4|
|LC ||8 ||55.076 ||49.741 ||90.3|
|2B ||4 ||17.702 ||15.934 ||88.3|
|OE ||2 ||6.342 ||2.379 ||37.5|
|OC, ME ||21 ||10.768 ||8.023 ||74.5|
|Total ||43 ||164.026 ||142.386 ||86.6|
3.2. OTHER PROGRAMMES
Three projects solved within the programme 2B started in 2006 and should finalise in 2010 or 2011. They focus on the sub areas 3d, 3g, and 6d. One project, started in 2008, relates to the utilisation of nanofibres in the preparation of systems for purification of waste waters (1g).
In 2008, there were for the first time projects started which deal with nanotechnologies within the programme EUREKA (OE). One of them focuses on the sub area 7a and another one focuses on the sub area 1a. They both follow specific practical objectives.
The programmes OC and ME support projects of the international cooperation. They are of small scope (about CZK 0.5 million on average annually) and serve rather for the maintenance of contacts between the cooperating researchers. They always relate to individuals. They cover almost the entire spectrum of the nomenclature.
Project OC 103 “Photocatalytic technologies and new nanosurface materials – problems in the application of photocatalytic nanosurface materials in the area of resolving security risks in EU”, 3/2006-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing. František Peterka, PhD., UJP, a.s., Praha – Zbraslav, the total costs in 2008 equal CZK 0.4 million, thereof CZK 0.4 million from the state budget. It is the only project classified in the sub area 8a (toxicity of nanoparticles).
4. Programmes by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of CR
MIT supports research of nanotechnologies within the four following programmes:
• POKROK (1H) – (PROGRESS)
• Permanent Prosperity (2A)
• TANDEM (FT)
• IMPULS (FI)
The review of the funds allocated to researchers in 2008 is presented in Table No. VI.
MIT supports mostly the industrial research and development and the funding participation of the researchers is significant. While the programmes POKROK (PROGRESS), TANDEM and IMPULS use the bottom-up selection method, there were topical areas announced for the programme “Permanent Prosperity” which had to be respected by the proposing parties. Project solutions should be finalised with specific applications. As descriptions of the projects’ objectives of the MIT programmes indicate, the researchers expect the results’ utilisation in the practice.
When we assess all the solved projects as a whole, the distribution of (not insignificant) funds, by the sub areas of the nomenclature, is as follows:
- 8 projects belong to the sub area 1a - nanopowders, nanofibres (the total of CZK 36.841 million, thereof CZK 20.170 million from the state budget), i.e. 22%
- 4 projects belong to the sub area 7d - equipment for the preparation of fibres, etc. (the total of CZK 27.761 million, thereof CZK 16.321 million from the state budget), i.e. 16.3%
- 3 projects belong to the sub area 1g - polymer nanocomposites (the total of CZK 15.822 million, thereof CZK 7.291 million from the state budget), i.e. 9.3%
- 1 project belongs to the sub area 2f - MEMS, NEMS (the total of CZK 12.925 million, thereof CZK 7.335 million from the state budget), i.e. 7.5%
- 3 projects belong to the sub area 7c - equipment and methods for the preparation of layers and coatings (the total of CZK 11.563 million, thereof CZK 6.199 million from the state budget), i.e. 6.8%
- The remaining 17 projects belong to the sub areas 1c, 1b, 1d, 2c, 2d, 2f, 3a, 5a, 5b, 6c, 7b, and 7e
- With the exception of one 5.5-year long project of medium scope, which belongs to the sub area 3a - the encapsulating of medication, no other projects belong to the group 3 - nanobiotechnologies and nanomedicine
- No project belongs to the area 4 - sensors.
Table No. VI
|Programme ||Number of projects ||Total, in million CZK ||From the state budget,in million CZK ||Share in %|
|PROGRESS ||3 ||7.279 ||3.878 ||53.0|
|Permanent Prosperity ||12 ||72.273 ||37.371 ||52.4|
|TANDEM ||15 ||68.743 ||39.081 ||56.8|
|IMPULS ||6 ||23.322 ||10.272 ||44.0|
|Total ||36 ||170.617 ||90.702 ||53.0|
5. Review of the programme projects by the nomenclature
All programme projects got numbers and letters assigned, according to the individual main areas and sub areas of the nomenclature. For allocations of funds, we used data related to 2008 from the Central Register of Projects. The results of this analysis are presented in Table No. VII. The Table presents the number of projects, the share of state funds in the total sum allocated to the projects and the average value of each project in 2008 in individual sub areas and areas.
The evaluation of the programme projects, according to the nomenclature, allows for the following conclusions:
- With the exception of the area 8 - Health, ecological, ethical, social, and other aspects of nanotechnologies, which is solved by only a single small project organised within the international cooperation (OC 103) in the sub area of nanoparticles’ toxicity, the projects focus, with different intensity, on all sub areas of the nomenclature
- 31.9% of the total number of projects focuses on nanomaterials, especially on the research of nanoparticles, nanofibres, quantum dots, etc. and 13 - 17% of the projects focus on the areas 2, 3, 6, and 7
- The average project value, from all 229 projects in 2008, is CZK 3.464 million. Close to this value is also the area 1 - nanomaterials. In this case, the large projects in the programme “Nanotechnology for the Society” and the projects of MIT are compensated by a larger number of projects in GA CR and GA AS CR. The areas 2 and 5 are also close to the average project value indicated above. The significantly higher average project values occur in the area 3 - Nanobiotechnology and also, with significantly fewer projects, the area 4 - Nanotechnology in sensors. In spite of the solution of 4 large projects focussing on the area 5 - Long-term research of nanosystems, the project average is the lowest in this area. It is the result of a large number of low-cost projects by GA CR and GA AS CR focussing on the theoretical aspects of nanophysics and nanochemistry.
- The individual areas are ranked by the size of their financial volumes as follows:
1 – Nanomaterials (73 projects)
3 – Nanobiotechnology (38 projects)
2 – Micro – nanoelectronics (30 projects)
7 – Technology, equipment (31 projects)
6 – Long-term research (34 projects)
5 – Nanotechnology in chemistry (16 projects)
4 – Nanotechnology in sensors (6 projects)
- The individual sub areas are ranked by the size of their financial volumes as follows:
1a – Nanoparticles, nanofibres (25 projects)
1d – Nanolayers, nanocoatings (15 projects)
3b – Controlled transport of medication (4 projects)!
3g – Diagnostics (9 projects)
2a – Nanoelectronics, photonics (4 projects)
6c – Nano and meso systems (4 projects)
3d – Bioanalogical materials (8 projects)
1g – Polymer nanocomposites (15 projects)
- The lowest funds – less than CZK 1 million per project, were allocated in 2008 to the following sub areas:
8a – Toxicity of nanoparticles (1 project worth CZK 0.4 million)
1f – Nanoceramics (7 projects of the average value of CZK 0.521 million)
6a – Self-assembly (2 projects of the average value of CZK 0.549 million)
6e – Ultra precise engineering (2 projects of the average value of CZK 0.600 million)
3f – Bio-inorganic interface (1 project worth CZK 0.684 million)
6b – Nanophysics (15 projects of the average value of CZK 0.703 million)
- The total share of the state support of solutions of the programme projects in 2008 reached 81.5%. It is relatively a high share proving the fact that many projects focus on the basic research. Individual areas are ranked as follows:
8a – Toxicity of nanoparticles – 100%
6 – Long-term research – 92.7%
2 – Micro – nanoelectronics, photonics – 86.8%
3 – Nanobiotechnology – 86.5%
4 – Nanotechnology in sensors – 83.2%
1 – Nanomaterials – 76.8%
5 – Nanotechnology in chemistry – 75.3%
7 – Technology, equipment – 71.7%
- The lowest state support has been noticed in the sub area 7c – Preparation of nanolayers (62.8%), 5a – Filtration, membranes (64.5%), 7d – Preparation of massive objects (65.4%), and 1g – Polymer nanocomposites (69.1%).
We leave other conclusions to readers.
Table No. VII
|N ||Area ||Number of projects ||Total in million CZK ||SB in million CZK ||Share in % ||CP/P1 in million CZK|
|1a ||Nanoparticles, nanofibres ||25 ||102.688 ||74.035 ||72.1 ||4.107|
|1b ||Composites with nanoparticles ||5 ||7.253 ||5.550 ||76.5 ||1.451|
|1c ||Fullerens, C nanotubes ||4 ||6.475 ||4.055 ||62.6 ||1.619|
|1d ||Nanolayers, nanocoatings ||15 ||70.073 ||60.516 ||86.4 ||4.672|
|1e ||Nanostructured materials ||2 ||22.142 ||18.096 ||81.7 ||11.071|
|1f ||Nanoceramics ||7 ||3.644 ||3.543 ||97.2 ||0.521|
|1g ||Polymer nanocomposites ||15 ||36.044 ||24.901 ||69.1 ||2.403|
|1 ||Nanomaterials ||73 ||248.319 ||190.696 ||76.8 ||3.402|
|2a ||Nanoelectronics ||4 ||42.012 ||37.554 ||89.4 ||10.503|
|2b ||Photonics ||1 ||1.230 ||1.230 ||100.0 ||1.230|
|2c ||Optic materials ||9 ||20.789 ||17.734 ||85.3 ||2.310|
|2d ||Magnetic materials ||12 ||20.863 ||20.365 ||97.6 ||1.739|
|2e ||Bioelectronics ||3 ||8.849 ||8.362 ||9405 ||2.950|
|2f ||MEMS, NEMS ||1 ||12.952 ||7.335 ||100.0 ||12.652|
|2 ||Micro – nanoelectronics ||30 ||106.695 ||92.580 ||86.8 ||3.556|
|3a ||Encapsulating of medicine ||1 ||2.645 ||1.640 ||100.0 ||2.645|
|3b ||Controlled transport of medications ||4 ||53.917 ||46.260 ||85.8 ||13.479|
|3c ||Tissue engineering ||7 ||26.320 ||22.318 ||84.8 ||3.760|
|3d ||Bioanalogical materials ||8 ||39.428 ||35.015 ||88.8 ||4.928|
|3e ||Molecular analysis ||8 ||24.091 ||21.195 ||88.0 ||3.011|
|3f ||Bio-inorganic interface ||1 0.684 ||0.684 ||100.0 ||0.684|
|3g ||Diagnostics ||9 ||52.115 ||45.187 ||86.7 ||5.791|
|3 ||Nanobiotechnology ||38 ||199.200 ||172.299 ||86.5 ||5.242|
|4a ||Sensors with nanomaterials ||3 ||14.412 ||12.324 ||85.5 ||4.804|
|4b ||Biomolecular sensors ||3 ||15.740 ||12.762 ||81.1 ||5.247|
|4 ||Nanotechnology in sensors ||6 ||30.152 ||25.086 ||83.2 ||5.025|
|5a ||Filtration, membranes ||5 ||16.589 ||10.702 ||64.5 ||3.318|
|5b ||Nanocatalysis ||8 ||27.394 ||22.734 ||83.0 ||3.424|
|5c ||Supramolecular chemistry ||3 ||6.891 ||4.871 ||70.7 ||2.297|
|5 ||Nanotechnology in chemistry ||16 ||50.874 ||38.307 ||75.3 ||3.180|
|6a ||Self-assembly ||2 ||1.099 ||1.099 ||100.0 ||0.549|
|6b ||Nanophysics (theory) ||15 ||10.549 ||9.774 ||92.7 ||0.703|
|6c ||Nano and meso systems ||4 ||41.643 ||38.094 ||91.5 ||10.411|
|6d ||Nanochemistry (theory) ||11 ||12.712 ||12.155 ||95.6 ||1.156|
|6e ||Ultra precise engineering ||2 ||1.200 ||1.200 ||100.0 ||0.600|
|6 ||Long-term research ||34 ||67.203 ||62.322 ||92.7 ||1.977|
|7a ||Analytical equipment and methods ||9 ||21.323 ||17.576 ||82.4 ||2.369
|7b ||Manufacture of nanoparticles, processing ||5 ||15.326 ||11.906 ||77.7 ||3.065|
|7c ||Preparation of layers (equipment) ||7 ||14.205 ||8.921 ||62.8 ||2.029|
|7d ||Preparation of massive objects ||8 ||33.561 ||21.933 ||65.4 ||4.195|
|7e ||Nanometrology, machining ||2 ||5.996 ||4.465 ||74.5 ||2.998|
|7 ||Technology, equipment ||31 ||90.411 ||64.801 ||71.7 ||2.916|
|8a ||Toxicity of nanoparticles ||1 ||0.400 ||0.400 ||100 ||0.400|
|Total ||229 ||793.254 ||646.491 ||81.5 ||3.464|
Note: 1 – CP/P: The average funds per project. It has been calculated from the total funds allocated to the area or sub area.
1) The executed analysis shows that there was the total CZK 793.254 million allocated to the research of nanotechnologies within the programme projects in 2008, thereof CZK 646.491 million from the state budget - 81.5% of the total sum. It is relatively a high share proving the fact that many projects focus on the basic research
2) Individual providers’ shares in the mentioned sum are as follows:
|Provider ||Number of projects ||Total, in million CZK ||From the state budget,in million CZK ||Share in %|
|AS CR ||80 ||392.948 ||347.740 ||88.5|
|GA CR ||70 ||65.663 ||65.663 ||100.0|
|MEYS ||43 ||164.026 ||142.386 ||86.6|
|MIT ||36 ||170.617 ||90.702 ||53.0|
|Total ||229 ||793.254 ||646.491 ||81.5|
3) Almost 50% (49.5%) of the funds was provided for the research of nanotechnologies in 2008 by AS CR, especially to those related to the programme “Nanotechnology for the Society”
4) The average project value, from all 229 projects in 2008, is CZK 3.464 million
5) 31.3% of the funds allocated to the research of nanotechnologies in the form of programme projects were focussed in 2008 on nanomaterials, 25.1% on nanobiotechnologies, and 12.5% on nanoelectronics and photonics
6) Projects ignore the health, ethical and social aspects of nanotechnologies
7) Only the researchers of projects solved within MIT programmes expect the application of their results in practice.
Authors: Tasilo Prnka