Nanotechnologie česká verze
  BITCOIN
Program “GRANTS OF A DISTINCT EXPLORATORY CHARACTER FOCUSSED ON THE RESEARCH DEVELOPED CURRENTLY MAINLY IN AS CR” (IA)
Vydáno dne 20. 08. 2009 (2108 přečtení)

Projects solved in the area of nanotechnologies

IAA100100903 „Formation of nanostructures and ordered phases of metals on silicon surface“. 1/2009-12/2011, the researcher is doc. RNDr. Zdeněk Chvoj, DrSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 1,947 million , thereof CZK 1,947 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 0,637/0,637, 6a)

Objective of the project:
Understanding of processes resulting to the formation of ordered metal structures Pb, Au on silicon surface is cardinal question solved in proposed project. Properties of resulting structure are determined by the mutual relation of time evolution of deposition, atom diffusion, nucleation and phase transformation. Specification of the role of particular processes, under given non-equilibrium conditions will be studied in union of theory and experiment. Experimental part is focused on detailed study of processes of phase and structures ordering on atomic level, using STM and AFM methods. Phase transition will be studied by PEEM. Theoretical part is focused on connection of the microscopical description of kinetics (numerical simulations by KMC) with the mezoscopic description in the framework of stochastic equations. Project enables us to study influence of the external conditions on growth processes of ordered structures and on their stability in wide time scale.

IAA100100912 „Magnetic anisotrophy of nano-interfaces“, 1/2009-12/2012, the researcher is Ing. Alexander Shick, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 2,336 million , thereof CZK 2,336 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 0,611/0,611, 6b)
Co-researcher: Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, doc. RNDr. Lasdislav Havela, CSc.

Objective of the project:
The project is focused on combined theoretical and experimental investigation of the fundamental aspects of the magnetic anisotropy in nanoscaled heterostructures of the d- and f-transition-element based materials. These are potentially important for various applications and developments of magnetoelectronic nanoscience and nanotechnology. Modern electronic structure theory methods including spin-orbit coupling and electron correlations will be used for element-specific calculations of the magnetic anisotropy. The theory will be combined with state-of-the-art experimental studies of different types of interfaces (Mn/4(5)d-element multilayers, U-based multilayers and thin films) and other systems combining the 5f and d-magnetism. In a final stage the project will lead to the modeling and understanding of the magnetic anisotropy in practically used magnetic sensors and switches, magneto-electronic devices, magnetic tunnel junctions, and tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance devices.

AA100650902 „Scanning transmission electron microscopy with very slow electrons“, 1/2009-12/2011, the researcher is Ing. Ilona Müllerová, DrSc., Institute of Scientific Instruments of AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, the total cost of CZK 2,467 million , thereof CZK 2,467 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 0,857/0,857, 7a)

Objective of the project:
Scanning transmission electron microscope, usually operating at primary beam energies above tens of keV, is widely used for studiing of thin samples. Mean free paths of elastic (EMFP) and inelastic (IMFP) scattering of electrons increase as the primary beam energy is increased, therefore penetration of electrons through a sample of a given thickness is question of using suitably high primary energy, which leads to radiation damage. If the primary energy is lowered below 100 eV, however, IMFP grows again but the same does not hold for EMFP. The aim of this project is to study possibilities of the scanning transmission electron microscopy with very low energy, where the cathode lens decelerates the electron beam just in front of the specimen surface, securing resolution of a few nm even at the landing energy below a few eV. Influence of the thin film sample on transmission of the primary beam and spectroscopy of transmitted electrons will be examined.

IAA200500904 „Optimizing structure and properties of multiphase thermosets using self-assembled nanofiller-based inclusions“, 1/2009-12/2012, the researcher is Ing. Ivan Kelnar, CSc., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 3,723 million , thereof CZK 3,723 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 0,985/0,985, 1g)

Objective of the project:
Simultaneous increase in toughness, stiffness and strength of thermoset nanocomposites should be achieved by complex effect of layered or tube-type nanofillers in two phase system of epoxy resin with dispersed polymeric phase like elastomers, thermoplastic polymers or different copolymers. Suitable modification of nanofiller surface in combination with different type, functionality and properties of polymeric phase together with kinetics of crosslinking should lead to formation of self-assembled complex organic-inorganic structures of dispersed inclusions, i. e., new effective impact modifiers. Further effects of nanofillers consist in simultaneous reinforcing of polymer components, modification of interphase and compatibilization leading to more fine and uniform structure of dispersed phase. The goal is understanding the basic parameters determining formation of complex impact modifier inclusions and their energy- absorbing mechanisms.

IAA400400906 „Nanocrystalline oxides for selective anodic electrocatalysi“, /2009-12/2012, the researcher is Ing. Petr Krtil, CSc., J.Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 5,428 million , thereof CZK 5,428 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 1,357/1,357, 5b)

Objective of the project:
The project focuses on a systematic study of the factors affecting activity and selectivity of the nanocrystalline oxide electrodes in anodic electrocatalytic processes namely in oxygen and chlorine evolution in acid media. Nanocrystalline oxides witn rutile structure derived from RuO2 and IrO2 will be prepared by sol-gel, solvothermal and Pechini processes. Prepared materials will be characterized by diffraction techniques, electron microscopy and X-ray absorption (EXAFS/XANES) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The actual electrocatalytic activity in oxygen and chlorine evolution will be studied by a combination of conventional potentiodynamic techniques with i)differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy (DEMS) and ii) X-ray absortion spectroscopy (EXAFS/XANES). The obtained data will be used to rationalize the selectivity of the surface towards competing anodic processes as well as to describe the structure of the active sites for corresponding reactions.

IAA400400911 „Spectroscopy and spectroelectrochemistry of chemically doped carbon nanostructures“, 1/2009-12/2012, the researcher is RNDr. Martin Kalbáč, Ph.D., J.Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 3,307 million , thereof CZK 3,307 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 0,758/0,758, 1c)

Objective of the project:
The project is aimed to explore electronic properties of SWCNTs (Single wall carbon nanotubes) filled with fullerenes, inner nanotube or organic molecules. The electronic properties of filled SWCNTs will be further tuned by chemical and/or electrochemical doping. The prepared chemically doped materials will be characterised by Raman, Vis-NIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical doping of the filled and chemically tuned SWCNTs will be monitored in-situ by Raman and Vis-NIR spectroscopy.

IAA400500905 „Preparation and properties of nanostructures produced by condcuting polymers“, 1/2009-12/2012, the researcher is RNDr. Jaroslav Stejskal, CSc., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 4,859 million , thereof CZK 4,859 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 1,277/1,277, 1g)
Co-researcher: Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, RNDr. Jan Prokeš, CSc.

Objective of the project:
Conducting polymers, like polyaniline, belong to responsive materials. They change their properties, like conductivity, optical absorption, density, or chemical structure, when exposed to the change in temperature, humidity, acidity, to the presence oxidants, reactive chemicals, or organic solvents, etc. This makes them of interest in the design of sensors, actuators, electrodes, and many other applications. The nano- and microstructure affects the properties of conducting polymers. The goal of the project is to prepare polyaniline nanotubes, nanofibres, and microspheres, to learn and reveal the principles of their formation, and to control the supramolecular morphology by varying the conditions of preparation. The properties, especially the conductivity and related electrical parameters, will be correlated with the molecular, macromolecular, and supramolecular structure. Diverse applications of polyaniline nanostructures will be tested in cooperation with various institutions.

IAAX0010092 „Electronically and chemically optimized nanocrystalline diamond structures for bio-applications“, 1/2009-12/2012, the researcher is RNDr. Milan Vaněček, CSc., Institute of Physics o AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 5,654 million , thereof CZK 5,654 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 1,763/1,763, 3d)
Co-researcher: Institute of Physiology of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, MUDr. Lucie Bačáková, CSc.

Objective of the project:
This interdisciplinary project focuses on a basic research and standardization of electronic grade nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films for biotechnology, mainly for tissue engineering. Its technological part is oriented on the CVD growth of B-doped NCD films, whereas their electronic, morphological and chemical properties will be studied and optimized with respect to the cell cultivation requirements. The selective growth of nano-sized NCD structures, by the self-assembly process from polymer composites, will be one of the most challenging parts. After proper functionalization, the NCD structures will be used for the realization of electronic devices able to recognize specific biochemical and biological reactions during the cell cultivation. B-doped NCD films will be used for electrically-induced and controlled differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. The realized cell lab-on-chip will represent a system with future application in the area of regenerative medicine.

IAAX08240901 „Novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanomaterials“, 1/2009-12/2013, the researcher is prof. Ing. Pavel Lhoták, CSc., Institute of Chemical Technology in Praha, the total cost of CZK 5,675 million , thereof CZK 5,675 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 1,121/1,121, 1g)
Co-researchers:
- Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, Ing. Milena Špírková, CSc.
- Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, Ing. Stanislav Šabata
- University of West Bohemia in Plzeň, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, doc. Ing. Petr Duchek, CSc.

Objective of the project:
The aim of project is preparation, characterisation, and study of properties of inorganic/organic hybrid materials based on montmorillonite and calixarenes. Intercalated structures will be synthesized from various homoionic forms of the mineral using different synthetic methods depending on calixarene used. Special attention will be paid to metal complexation, both in the course of the introduction of organic guest into montmorillonite containing already metal cations in the interlayer spacing, and during intercalation of basic montmorillonite host by different calixarenes that can serve as ionofors. Derivatisation of calixarenes by organosilicon moieties will enable the formation of siloxane bonding between host and guest molecules leading to stable hybrid nanomaterials with covalently bonded calixarenes. Hybrid structures will be studied for their potential application in catalytic reactions, neutral compounds recognition/intercalation, and their use for immobilization of enzymes.

IAA100100616 “The electron structure and physical properties of materials for nanoelectronics”, 1/2006-12/2009, the head researcher is RNDr. Václav Drchal, CSc. Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.758 million, thereof CZK 1.758 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.337/0.337, 6b)

Co-researcher:
- Institute of Physics of Materials of AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, RNDr. Ilja Turek, DrSc.
Objective of the solution: The creation of ab initio electron theory of systems with potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. There will be physical properties of solid substances, clusters and nanostructures systematically studied on the basis of their electron structure. The studies of electron transport and of other dynamic phenomena, exchange interactions, energy, the phase stability, and the spontaneous creation of nanostructures are also planned. A special stress is put on the correct coverage of electron correlations.

IAA100100622 “Conjugated silicon polymers for resistors in nanotechnologies”, 1/2006-12/2009, the head researcher is RNDr. Josef Zemek, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 5.246 million, thereof CZK 5.246 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.316/1.316, 1g)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, Prof. RNDr. Stanislav Nešpůrek, DrSc.
- Institute of Scientific Instruments of AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, RNDr. Petr Schauer, CSc.
- Tomáš Baťa University in Zlín, Faculty of Technology, Prof. Ing. František Schauer, DrSc.
Objective of the solution: The classic optical and electron lithography remains the main technology in the semiconductor industry, when manufacturing the current line width of 100 nm. The new technology of nanoprinting into polymers works with the resolution of 10 nm. The advanced manufacturing of masks with high energy electron beams thus must go through fundamental changes. The organic silicon nanostructure polymer materials make a new group of electronically active materials. The project’s goal is the research of processes resulting in the forming of metastable states in organic silicon polymers as, for example, weak bonds, their conversions to interrupted bonds, the influencing of these processes by the selection of materials, but also by active additives put into active silicon polymers. The methodologies utilised within the project will be the photoelectron spectroscopy, effusive spectroscopy, and photo and cathodoluminescence supported by the quantum-chemical calculations for the understanding of microphysical phenomena resulting in the metastability and degradation.

IAA100100632 “Interfaces in nanogranular systems – the impact of high external pressures on magnetic and magnetic-transport properties”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is RNDr. Zdeněk Arnold, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 0.920 million, thereof CZK 0.920 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.311/0.311, 6b)
Objective of the solution: The granular interface takes over relatively large volume in nanogranular systems and it significantly influences macroscopic properties of these systems. The project’s main goal is the contribution to the knowledge of external pressure on nanosystems’ properties and to the in-depth understanding of the interface role in these systems. There will be studies of macroscopic characteristics (magnetisation, electric resistance, including GMR - the giant magnetoresistance) of iron-based systems, which contain oxide and metallic nanoparticles, organised at high hydrostatic pressures. The project will study the reversible and irreversible behaviour of ballistic conductive materials. The changes in the interface, caused by pressure, will be correlated with changes in the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles. The study will be supplemented with the Mössbauer spectroscopy in high magnetic fields utilised mostly for the study of quality of the interface and of its influence on GMR.

IAA100100718 “Metal-dielectric nanostructures for optics”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Dr. Ing. Jiří Bulíř, Dr., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.258 million, thereof CZK 3.258 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.932/0.932, 2c)

Co-researcher:
- Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Prof. Ing. Pavel Fiala, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The studies of optical phenomena on structures combining metals with dielectric materials (M-D). The studied materials will cover dielectrics like, for example, oxides, nitrides, and fluorides. The selection of metallic materials has been reduced to the low-loss metals, especially Ag. A special attention will be paid to phenomena on the interface of these materials, from the technological preparation point of view (e.g. the mutual interdiffusion, oxidation of metallic parts, adhesion, or the nucleation mode ), but also from the optical phenomena point of view. The surface and interface qualities will be studied by the analytical methods (SEM, AFM, TEM, XPS, etc.) and indirectly simulated by the use of spectrophotometric data and the ellipsometric measurements. There will be phenomena related to the behaviour of the surface plasmon studied on the created structures, including its resonance properties and mutual optical bonds. The gained knowledge will be applied in the development of complex M-D structures using optical phenomena in connection with plasmon interactions with the electromagnetic radiation.

IAA100100719 “The controlled preparation of semiconductor quantum dots”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Doc. Ing. Eduard Hulicius, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.763 million, thereof CZK 1.763 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.558/0.558, 7d)
Objective of the solution: The controlled preparation of the shape and sizes of polyconductors’ quantum dots (QD) on the basis of InAs, later also GaSb, with the method of organic-metallic epitaxy (MOVPE). The important optic and electric properties of structures with QD are often determined by their size and shape, thanks to the comparable size of QD with the de Broglie electron and holes’ wavelength, rather than by the material from which QD have been prepared. The structure kind (the QD density, the number and distance of layers with QD in the vertically arranged structures) will also play a big role in optimising of the preparations. The above-described parameters are determined by the technological preparation process. These QD parameters will be managed by the growth temperature and speed, by the ratio of growth precursors, the time course of the epitaxy, and also by other technological parameters (e.g. the orientation and the substrate preparation). The epitaxy from molecular beams (MBE) has been the dominant technology for the QD preparation so far. This project should also prove that MOVPE is comparable with MBE from the preparation point of view.

IAA100100729 “Development of new hybrid deposition techniques for the preparation of thin nanostructural fluoride layers of distinct fluorescence properties”, 1/2007-12/2010, the head researcher is Ing. Ján Lančok, PhD., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 9.768 million, thereof CZK 9.768 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 2.087/2.087, 7d)

Co-researchers:
- Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Doc. RNDr. Radomír Kužel, CSc.
- Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, Ing. Jan Šubrt, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The development of a new hybrid technology for the preparation of nanostructured fluoride waveguide layers doped with rare metal elements (RE) with the utilisation of the e-beam evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, magnetron sputtering and auxiliary ion beam source .. The attention will focus on the preparation of waveguide structures with extraordinary fluorescence properties. A suitable example is made by fluoride layers doped with RE ions and nanometricly controlled distribution, structures with RE metallic nanocrystals (Yb, Er, Pr), oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) in the fluoride matrix, or complex structures of doped fluoride nanocrystals (Er:LaF3, Pr:LaF3) inserted in amorphous matrices of oxy-fluoride glasses. The effect of parameters of the combined depositing techniques on the structural and, consequently, optical and fluorescence properties will be studied within a wide spectrum of methods. At the end of the project, the attention will be paid to the design, modelling, and preparation of functional fluorescence and wave guiding structures.

IAA100500501 “Environment-responsive nanoparticles”, 1/2005-12/2008, the head researcher is Doc. RNDr. Čestmír Koňák, DrSc., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.632 million, thereof CZK 1.632 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.424/0.424, 6d)
Objective of the solution: The development of effective ways of directional and secure transport of biological macromolecules, e.g. DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins in the organism with the goal to find suitable conditions for the supramolecular complexes (SC) preparation and evaluation of preparation impacts on their properties. The specific project’s goal is the research of creation and of properties of: a) thermally managed supramolecular complexes created by hydrogen bonds between carboxyl groups of polycarboxyls and by hydrophobic interactions of thermosensitive polymers with surface agents or block copolymers, b) complexes sensitive to pH created by electrostatic interactions between polyelectrolytes and zwitterion copolymers. The project utilises original complex preparation processes and it also tests the complexes’ suitability for medical applications. For this purpose, there will be the complexes’ stability in biological conditions studied. The SC is considered in future for the managed transport of medicine and genetic materials.

IAA1010404 “Impact of external fields on small-size electron structures”, 1/2004-12/2008, the researcher is Ing. Jozef Krištofík, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 2.067 million, thereof CZK 2.067 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.483/0.483, 6b)
Objective of the solution: The impact of external physical fields (electric, magnetic, and acoustic fields and of the high hydrostatic pressure) on electron processes in the small size quantum structures is currently studied with the assistance of low-temperature magnetotransport and magnetocapacity methods, especially with the unique method of electric field penetration, which allows the direct study of states’ density in the system, under variable outside conditions. It should be expected that the achieved experimental results would be valuable not only for the future theory development, but also for the improvement of technologies.

IAA1010413 “Nanoscience and nanotechnology with probe microscopy: From phenomena at the atomic level to material properties”, 1/2004-12/2008, the researcher is Ing. Vladimír Cháb, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 10.438 million, thereof CZK 10.438 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.932/1.932, 7a)
Co-researcher:
- Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Prof. RNDr. Tomáš Šikola, CSc.
Objective of the solution: Nanoscience applies varied nanotechnological processes in such a way that it modifies and consequently studies nanoobjects’ properties. The effects of quantum phenomena are especially attractive in these sizes. The research focuses on five following areas: structural, electron, and spectroscopic properties at the atomic level, characterising of nanoclusters, the nanolithography with SPM. The macroscopic and topographic data will be combined with the local spectroscopy of electric conductivity, electroluminescence, and local density of states, diffusion, output works, and photovoltaic phenomena. These physical properties are also theoretically studies.

IAA200100701 “Magnetic nanocomposites based on 3d-metals for the high-frequency and sensor applications prepared with the assistance of the UHV plasma jet ”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing. Bc. František Fendrych, PhD., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 2.608 million, thereof CZK 2.608 million from the state budget. Year 2008 – 0.882/0.882, 2d)

Co-researcher:
- Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Doc. RNDr. Petr Řepa, CSc.,
Objective of the solution: The preparation of samples of magnetically soft materials consisting of multilayers of nanocomposites based on 3d-metals, especially the layers of nitrides or oxides of the (FeCo)p-(XY)1-p kind, where X = Al, Ta, Hf, Si and Y = N, O. The direct measuring of samples verifies the assumption that these materials have extraordinary magnetic properties and allow thus for important industrial applications in, for example, GHz-inductors for mobile communication or in sensors of magnetic fields, reading memory heads with the high density of recordings, etc. It has been quite difficult so far to manufacture them in the required pure form, chemical composition, and with the expected structure. The Institute of Physics of AS CR will use the unique UHV depositing apparatus with a plasma jet for their preparation. It will be supplemented with the device necessary for the creation of multilayers, layer sputtering from non conductive targets and initiation of the managed magnetic sample anisotropy. This will develop, together with the material preparation, the preparation methodology, which would be satisfactorily effective for the practical use.

IAA200480702 “Metallic and semiconductor nanostructures prepared by the ionic implantation”, 1/2007-12/2009, the researcher is Mgr. Jiří Vacík, CSc., Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, the total costs of CZK 0.930 million, thereof CZK 0.930 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.310/0.310, 1b)
Objective of the solution: The project’s goal is the study of nanostructures prepared by the implanting of selected ions in some ceramic and semiconducting substrates. The main project goal is the preparation of nanocomposites with properly defined and controlled microstructures and the finding and defining of the relation between structural and optical (or other) properties of the prepared materials.

IAA200710801 “Conversion from micro-and nano-indentation instrumented measurements data to mechanical characteristics of visco-elastic materials”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is Ing. Jiří Minster, DrSc., Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.723 million, thereof CZK 1.723 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.551/0.551, 7a)

Co-researcher:
- Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Construction, Ing. Jiří Němeček, PhD.
Objective of the solution: The dissemination of knowledge and the gain of in-depth understanding of time dependent processes related to microindentation technique of hardness measuring with the use of the combination of component probability simulation Monte Carlo method and the instrument measuring of the microhardness and the material parameters during the entire microindentation process of loading - unloading. The comparison and evaluation of the results gained by these two approaches will be used for the determination of optimal long-term visco-elastic characteristics of materials with the quasi linear visco-elastic behaviour. The impact of non mechanical factors, the aging in laboratory and climatic conditions (i.e. the combination of temperature, humidity and radiation of lights) on the time dependent indentation processes and the visco-elasticcharacteristics of the monitored materials will be assessed at the same time.

IAA400040804 “Applications of electrochemical methods focussed on the microanalyses of nucleic acid bases and oligonucleotides”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is RNDr. František Jelen, CSc., Institute of Biophysics of AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, the total costs of CZK 2.496 million, thereof CZK 2.496 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.823/0.823, 3e)
Objective of the solution: The development and application of modern electrochemical methods allowing for the microanalysis of nucleic acids and synthetic oligonucleotides’ bases. (a) There will be the highly sensitive analytical method developed, which will allow the detection of purine bases and its derivates at the presence of copper ions. The analysis will take place in solutions containing mixtures of these components on mercury film, amalgam, carbonous, composite, and metal electrodes. The proposed analytical processes will be applied for the sensitive detection of hydrolysed oligonucleotides. (b) There will be electrochemical system, working in the microdrop of the analysed sample, used for the increased sensitivity of the purine bases’ detection, or of their derivates and oligonucleotides. The microdrop will be moved by the flowing inert gas (the inversion electrochemical cell). (c) There will be an electrochemical symbol proposed for the hybridisation of oligonucleotides based on nucleotide analogues containing boron.

IAA400100701 “Nanocomposites metal-fullerene and metal-diamond: Preparation, characterising, and modification”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is RNDr. Vladimír Vorlíček, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 4.730 million, thereof CZK 4.730 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.525/1.525, 1b)

Co-researcher:
- Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, Mgr. Jiří Vacík, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The preparation, characterising and modification of binary composites based on metals and allotropes of carbon (fullerenes and nanodiamonds). The goal is the creation of new hybrid materials with properly defined structures and interesting properties, which are perspective for their further applications. The composite preparations will use suitable depositing techniques. Their characterising is possible thanks to a wide spectrum of analytical methods. The preliminary experiments demonstrated the most interesting aspect of the project - the possibility to prepare composites with a regular (sub-) micron structure created by either spontaneous self-organisation (at suitable depositing kinetics) or co-ordinated phase separation during the thermal annealing, or by the exposure to energy ion and laser beams. The project should clarify the occurrence causes, mechanisms, and kinetics of the mentioned phenomena.

IAA400400621 “DNA condensation: the Monte-Carlo simulation, scattering of light, the correlation fluorescence spectroscopy in vitro and in vivo”, 1/2006-12/2010, the researcher is Teresa Kral, Dr., J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 6.783 million, thereof CZK 6.783 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.645/1.645, 3e)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Molecular Genetics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, MUDr. Jaroslav Blahoš, PhD.
- Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Science, RNDr. Miroslav Štěpánek, PhD.
Objectives of the project: The DNA condensation plays a key role in the transport of DNA to cells, i.e. in the gene therapy. The fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a sensitive method of monitoring the conformation changes during this process. This is indicated by many studies executed by the researcher’s team. However, the data analysis applied so far has not provided all information about the studied problem. The Monte Carlo method simulates the free DNA molecule diffusion and the resulting FCS experiment’s result. This is compared with real data and the dispersive measurements complementing FCS. The utilisation of this information and of the already gained experience from condensations allows for the study of new condensation agents, i.e. it researches the effectiveness of the impacts and abilities to protect DNA against undesirable hydrolysis in the cytosol. The last three years of the project will utilise the experience gained from experiments in vitro also for measuring in vivo, i.e. the monitoring of the form in which a cell accepts DNA present in important cell organelles.

IAA400400804 “Supramolecular assemblies with carbon nanotubes", 1/2008-12/2012, the researcher is Prof. RNDr. Ladislav Kavan, DrSc., J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 6.370 million, thereof CZK 6.370 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.100/1.100, 1
Objectives of the project: Synthesis of supramolecular complexes of carbon nanotubes, including chirality (n,m) identified ones, with redox active molecules, such as organometalic complexes and fullerenes. The complexes will be both endohedral and exohedral. The anchoring structures will include different interactions from weak Van der Waals bonds to covalent bonds. The prepared superstructures will be characterized by electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical and luminescence methods. Besides accumulation of fundamental knowledge about these new nanomaterials, the project is aimed at practical aspects, such as development of redox active additives for materials applicable in solar cells and Li-ion batteries.

IAA480616 “Thermoresponsive polymer drug delivery systems for the local radiotherapy”, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is Ing. Ondřej Lebeda, PhD., Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec – Řež, the total costs of CZK 3.965 million, thereof CZK 3.965 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.322/1.322, 3b)

Co-researcher:
- Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, Mgr. Martin Hrubý
Objectives of the solution: The thermoresponsive polymers are perspective compounds for medical applications. One of them may be the radiotherapy of joint inflammation and malign lesions by the thermoresponsive polymer with the bound radionuclide. These polymers are readily soluble in water at the laboratory temperature and they might be thus marked in the radionuclide way, and applied by injections then. At the body temperature, there is a fast phase transfer and the precipitated polymer stays in the application place. The insertion of a suitable monomer unit into the polymer results in the managed polymer degradation, according to the radionuclide half-life. The goals of the suggested project are the preparation of marked polymers suitable for therapeutical purposes and the study of their properties.

IAA400500505 “New multicomponent self-assemled nanocomposite materials”, 1/2005-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing. Milena Špírková, CSc., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.6 million, thereof CZK 1.6 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.325/0.325, 1g)
Objective of the solution: The complex characterising of multicomponent nanocomposite organic-inorganic materials. The organic part consists of systems based on epoxides, polyurethanes, or acrylates. The attention is focussed on the targeted in situ creation of nanodomains of inorganic nature, on the study of automatic organising of these nanostructures, and on their in-building into the organic matrix. The study of effects of the size, shape and composition of nanodomains and of the chain dynamics (from the segment level to the supramolecular level) on the properties of final materials makes an inseparable part of the project. The stress will be put especially on the study of temperature dependency of the segment dynamics, chains and domains with the objective to optimise sample preparation processes, the result of which should be products with improved final properties. There will be the most modern techniques of NMR spectroscopy of the solid state, microscopy of atomic forces, dispersion methods related to the X rays, the IR spectroscopy, and the static and dynamic mechanical analyses used.

IAA400500701 “Nanostructural organic-inorganic polymers”, 1/2007-12/2011, the head researcher is RNDr. Libor Matějka, CSc., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i.. Praha, the total costs of CZK 2.880 million, thereof CZK 2.880 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.580/0.580, 1g)
Objective of the project: The explanation of processes determining the unique behaviour of polymer nanomaterials. There will be the effect of decisive factors determined, e.g. the character of nanodomains and interphase interactions on properties of polymer nanocomposites. When interpreting the properties of polymer nanocomposites, the molecular and structural supramolecular levels will be taken into consideration. For this purpose, there will be nanostructural polymers studied, especially the organic-inorganic (O-A) ones with the regulated structure in nano and in micro scales. The supramolecular structure of O-A polymers is managed with the assistance of self-assembled O-A blocked copolymers, or with the assistance of special polymer templates. There will be polymer systems of varied kinds of nanodomains, occurring in situ or introduced into polymers as properly defined nanostructural building blocks, prepared and characterised. There will be also nanocomposites researched which contain carbonous nanotubes or layered silicates.

IAA400550613 “Dynamics of molecules and ions in the complex molecular systems”, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is RNDr. Ota Bludský, CSc., Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.313 million, thereof CZK 1.313 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.442/0.442, 7a)

Co-researcher:
- Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ing. Pavel Soldán, Dr.
Objective of the project: The development of theoretical methods used for the determination of spectroscopic characteristics of molecules and ions in complex molecular systems. The precise interpretation of experimental data related to studied molecules allows for the gaining of valuable information about the structure and properties of the environment with which the molecules interact. The methodology is used for the spectroscopic characterising of molecules in precious gas matrices, in fullerene-based matrices, and in zeolites.

IAA400550616 “Molecular rotors anchored on the phase surface”, 1/2006-12/2009, the researcher is RNDr. Ivo Starý, CSc., Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.849 million, thereof CZK 3.849 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.788/0.788, 3d)
Objective of the project: The preparation of series of molecular rotors and their anchoring on the phase surface of a non conductor and the study of their thermal movements and reaction to outside managing field.

IAA400550704 “Fullerene containers. Design, synthesis, properties, and possible applications”, 1/2007-12/2011, the head researcher is Ing. Petr Holý, CSc., Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 4.934 million, thereof CZK 4.934 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.980/0.980, 6d)
Objective of the project: The project presents a number of aromatic high volume analogues of cyclodextrines designed for the placement of fullerene in the form of inclusive complexes 1:1. The proposed architecture utilises attractive interactions between the aromatic host interior and the fullerene for the support of creation of an inclusive complex, while the periphery function is the optimising of its soluble nature in a wide spectrum of solvents, including water. There has been the utilisation in construction of molecular reactors, determined for the regioselective modification of fullerenes, suggested. Some proposed reactors are chiral and allow also the enantioselective resolution at the same time. There has been also an original chemical transformation proposed, determined specifically for the cyclotetramer anthracene inclusive complexes with a fullerene the goal of which is the creation of highly arranged covalent 1D and 2D fullerene structures usable in the molecular electronics and in constructions of chemical sensors.

IAA400550708 “Polyacetylenes containing carbon anions in lateral chains”, 1/2007-12/2010, the researcher is Prof. Josef Michl, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.910 million, thereof CZK 3.910 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.788/0.788, 6d)
Objective of the project: The preparation of polyacetylenes with negatively charged side chains resistant against oxidation and electrophile agents, their transformation to a highly doped state and the study of conductivity dependency on temperature. Negative charges will be localised on multiply alkylated or fluoroalkylated carbon anions of high oxidation potential and low nucleophilicity. The researchers will network polymer chains with the assistance of conjugated acetylene or phenylene bridges between carbon cages.

IAA400720619 “New laser-initiated process producing new carbon nanomaterials and nanomaterials incorporating N, B, and Si heteroatoms”, 1/2006-12/2010, the researcher is RNDr. Josef Pola, DrSc., Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 5.331 million, thereof CZK 5.331 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.063/1.063, 6d)

Co-researchers:
- J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, RNDr. Zdeněk Bastl, CSc.
- Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., RNDr. Snejana Bakardieva, PhD.
- Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, Ing. Miroslav Maryška, CSc.
Objective of the project: The research of photolysis of gaseous unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene) and dichlorethylenes by the effect of highly intensive radiation (MW and GW) of excimer lasers. The research extends the preliminary results suggesting that the above-presented process might result in a completely non conventional creation of new kinds of carbon nanostructures without the intermediate creation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The research of laser co-photolysis of gaseous mixtures of hydrocarbon and chlorethylenes with heteroatoms (B, N, Si)-containing compounds by the effects of MW and GW radiation of excimer lasers is conducted with the objective to prepare new carbon nanostructures with incorporated heteroatoms. The new materials are research with spectral methods (IC, Raman, XP, NMR, UV, and the EPR spectroscopy) and electron microscopy, their magnetic properties will be also studied. The research objective is the preparation of new carbon nanostructures with unique properties and applications in nanoscience and nanotechnologies.

IAA401250701 “Modified aluminosilicates – the effective nanosorbents of arsenic, antimony and selen oxoanions: mechanics and kinetics of reactions on solid phase surface”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing. Barbora Doušová, CSc., Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, the total costs of CZK 0.883 million, thereof CZK 0.883 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.305/0.305, 6d)
Objective of the project: Hydrated surfaces of aluminosilicates belong among effective sorbents in natural and technological processes. However, thanks to low values of the isoelectric point, they are not selective sorbents of anions. Many studies, thanks to good properties and the price of these materials, deal with the treatment of aluminosilicates’ surfaces in order to increase their sorption capacity related to toxic oxoanions. The project deals with the treatment of aluminosilicates by Fe, Al, and Mn ions and the consequent adsorption of As, Sb, and Se oxoanions on their surfaces. The objective of the research is the study of the mechanism and the phenomena’s kinetics taking place on the surface of the solid phase. The use of the already gained experience, new experimental data and other identification methods (ESCA, molecular simulation) will allow for the determination of adsorption properties of the treated sorbents, according to the physical-chemical conditions in the system. The identical experimental conditions will allow, for the first time, the mutual comparison of oxoanions with the sorbent - their affinity, sorption kinetics, competition related to the active place, etc.

IAA401250703 “Porous ceramics, ceramic composites and nanoceramics”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Doc. Dr. Dipl.-Min. Willi Past, Germany, Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, the total costs of CZK 0.613 million, thereof CZK 0.613 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.172/0.172, 1f)
Objective of the project: Porous ceramics and ceramic composites are heterogenous materials offering effective properties determined by the properties of individual phases and by the microstructure of these materials. Relations between the microstructure and properties could be described in the best way within micromechanics (the theory of composites). The first objective of this project is the presentation of an exhaustive review of porous ceramics from the micromechanics point of view, including the description of the microstructure and properties resulting from it. Ceramic composites will be dealt with within the same micromechanical framework. The ceramic material classes in this project cover oxide and non oxide ceramics and their composites, but also the traditional ceramics. The final project’s part uses the micromechanical approach for the analysis of publicised experimental data related to nanocrystalline ceramics, especially with the assistance of the so-called model of phase mixtures. The project’s results will make up the basis for the planned monograph (the publishing of which does not make a part of this project).

IAA401770601 “Electron processes at the molecular level in substances suitable for the photosensitive organic parts”, 1/2006-12/2009, the researcher is Ing. Martin Weiter, PhD., Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, the total costs of CZK 1.973 million, thereof CZK 1.973 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.452/0.452, 6d)

Co-researcher:
- Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, RNDr. Petr Toman, PhD.
Objective of the project: The studies of electron processes influencing charge carriers’ generation and of the consequent transport in materials suitable for the construction of organic photosensitive parts (e.g. solar cells) with the goal to increase their efficiency. The research activities of this project cover the theoretical and experimental studies of photodisociation of charge carriers’ processes and their transport at the molecular level. The study of these processes will pay attention mostly to the distribution of the density of electron localised states in the studied materials. The theoretical part of the project focuses on quantum mechanical modelling of intramolecular transport of charge carriers. The necessary molecular parameters, like ionisation potentials and transfer integrals, will be gained with the assistance of quantic chemical calculations. The experimental part of the project includes the study of electron processes by the methods of spectroscopy of electron states based on the transient photoconductivity and on currents limited by the space charge.

IAA500390702 “The tissue carrier of nanofibre materials with the inbuilt liposomes”, 1/2007-12/2011, the head researcher is Doc. RNDr. Evžen Amler, CSc., Institute of Experimental Medicine of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 4.391 million, thereof CZK 4.391 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.950/0.950, 3c)

Co-researchers:
- Technical University in Liberec, Faculty of Textiles, Prof. RNDr. David Lukáš, CSc.
Objective of the project: Damage of cartilages finally results in very painful situations and invalidity. A new treatment approach has recently occurred: the implanting of autologous chondrocytes and the construction of artificial cartilages. This approach uses biodegradable carriers and their consequent settlement by autologous chondrocytes. Preliminary results by the project’s researchers suggest that they can create a biodegradable carrier based on the non woven nanofibres in combination with liposomes. The main objective of this project is the creation of a nanofibre carrier with varied kinds of liposomes and the creation of methodology of their progressive opening by the use of ultrasound waves. The project thus focuses on: 1. Development of liposome nanofibres and the methodology of the liposome opening both in vitro and in vivo; 2. The preparation of biodegradable carrier for liposome nanofibres for the use in the tissue engineering; 3. The preparation of artificial cartilages from autologous chondrocytes on the basis of the newly developed carriers.

IAA500500701 “Internal organisation of macromolecular systems, crystallisation and the determining of the macromolecular system structures containing proteins”, 1/2007-12/2011, the researcher RNDr. Jindřich Hašek, DrSc., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 2.786 million, thereof CZK 2.786 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.565/0.565, 6d)
Objective of the project: The low success rate in the preparation of diffraction quality crystals is considered a problem, when determining the protein structures. Polymer precipitates, using about 30 protein complexes for the design of structures, remain often partly adsorbed on the protein surface, while most of them remain diluted in the buffer filling 40 - 80% of the crystal space. The preliminary analysis suggests that the success rate of these precipitates is high and dependent on varied levels of blocking of specific sorption places on the surface of the target macromolecule. Proteins have got a large number of potential sorption places on their surface, but a crystal of the diffraction quality occurs only when only one adhesion possibility is preferred. This project focuses on the experimental and the theoretical analyses of this phenomenon, i.e. how do adhesion places on the protein surface, accessible for the blocking ligands, look like and which ligands should be used, and under which conditions they are successful. The role of all parts of the crystalline solution must be analysed.


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