Nanotechnologie česká verze
Vydáno dne 19. 08. 2009 (1944 přečtení)

Projects solved in the area of nanotechnologies

KJB100100903 „Nanocomposites from silicon and diamond nanocrystals for optoelectronic applications“, 1/2009-12/2011, the researcher is RNDr. Kateřina Dohnalová, Ph.D., Institute of Physics o AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 0,985 million , thereof CZK 0,985 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 0,309/0309, 1d)

Objective of the project:
The project is aimed at (i) optimizing the nanotechnological process and (ii) characterizing electronic transport and optical properties of newly fabricated nanocomposite materials based on silicon and diamond nanocrystals towards optically and electrically driven light emission, with the perspective of achieving stimulated emission. The nanocomposites will consist of dense layers of small (~3 nm) oxidized silicon nanocrystals, prepared via electrochemical etching, incorporated into nanodiamond-based thin films, prepared using nanodiamond powders (5-20 nm) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. In this way, we will merge the advantages of both materials – strong visible luminescence of the silicon nanocrystals and excellent physical properties of nanodiamond films, such as wide band gap, chemical inertness, extreme hardness, high breakdown field, good thermal and electrical conductivity to support high current and high optical pump fluence.

KJB400400902 „Imaging photochemical processes in free nanoparticles“, 1/2009-12/2011, the researcher is Mgr. Viktoryia Poterya, Ph.D., J.Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total cost of CZK 1,395 million , thereof CZK 1,395 million from the state budget..
(Year 2009 – 0,545/0,545, 6b)

Objective of the project:
Clusters and nanoparticles as a form of matter intermediate between atoms (or molecules) and the bulk allow a study of the evolution of a property from the atom towards the condensed matter. Irradiating these species with a UV-laser pulse, it is possible to study processes relevant for ozone depletion on the polar stratospheric clouds or for the radiation damage of DNA. The main purpose of this proposal is to build a new molecular beam apparatus with ion imaging detection of the photodissociation products. The new technique will allow to monitor the effect of the cluster environment on the photodissociation dynamic of the molecules and clusters relevant to atmospheric and biological chemistry. The dependence of the kinetic energy distribution of the photolysis products on the cluster size, structure and bonding in various cluster species will be studied.

KJB100100623 “The nanocrystalline diamond growth at low temperature and the bio-functionalization of its surface”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is Mgr. Zdeněk Remeš, PhD., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 0.498 million, thereof CZK 0.498 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.166/0.166, 1f)

Objective of the solution:
The management of nanodiamond layers’ growth at lower temperature. This should allow for depositing on easily accessible glass bases. The layers are grown in the plasma generated by the microwave electromagnetic field. The impact of the base surface, the total pressure, and the concentrations of hydrogen, methane, oxygen, nitrogen and of their free radicals on the growth of nanodiamond layers at varied temperatures is studied. Another objective is the bio-activation of the nanodiamond’s surface and its preparation for chemisorption (immobilisation) of proteins. This is important for future bioapplications. There is the radio-frequency discharge in vapours of ammoniac, organiaminosilane, and allylamin used for the achievement of the high coverage density on the diamond surface by the primary amino group (NH2). Optical and electrical properties of these modified surfaces are studied by the methods accessible in the Institute of Physics, especially the luminescence spectroscopy, the Fourier infrared reflex spectroscopy, and the Fourier photo-current spectroscopy.

KJB100100701 “New magnetic composite nanoparticles for medical purposes derived from hexagonal ferrite”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing Pavel Veverka, PhD., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 0.963 million, thereof CZK 0.963 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.321/0.321, 2d)

- Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, Ing. Adriana Lančok-Kláriková, PhD.
Objective of the solution: The synthesis of new magnetic nanoparticles of the composite character derived from the group of hexagonal ferrites using the structural relationship of spinel and hexagonal ferrites. Considering the main objective, the finding of a material for magnetic cores suitable for potential medical applications, especially in magnetic hyperthermia, the magnetic properties, the saturated magnetisation, coercivity, remanence, and the thermal coefficient of magnetisation will be set by the utilisation of changes in the chemical and phase composition and by the nanoparticle sizes. The impact of the phase composition and nanoparticle phases on the transfer between the arranged ferrimagnetic state and the superparamagnetic behaviour will be studied in detail. The use of Mössbauer spectroscopy for the study of this transfer is characteristic by its unique chance to differentiate behaviours of particles in the given phase.

KJB100100704 “Size effects in ferroelectrics”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing. Dmitry Nuzhnyy, PhD., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 0.792 million, thereof CZK 0.792 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.264/0.264, 6b)
Objective of the solution: The impact of the size effect on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties will be studied in normal ferroelectrics (e.g. the BaTiO3 nanoparticles covered with a thin layer of alumina) and in incipient ferroelectrics (the KTaO3 nanoceramics and SrTiO3 ultra thin layers on DyScO3 bases), but also in relaxor based ferroelectrics (the PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 - PbTiO3 nanoceramics). The broadband dielectric spectroscopy, in time differentiated terra hertz spectroscopy, and the Raman spectroscopy will be used at the temperatures 10 - 950 K for the study of dynamics of phase interfaces, especially the behaviour of the soft and central modes in samples with nanograins, or in ultra thin layers. The BaTiO3 nanograins coated with an alumina thin layer will be used as a model example of nanoceramics with well-defined parameters of grains and grain boundaries (the so-called dead layers).

KJB100100707 “Low-temperature plasma deposition of polycrystalline and nanocrystalline thin oxide layers with the assistance of the hollow cathode system”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Mgr. Jiří Olejníček, Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.618 million, thereof CZK 1.618 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.479/0.479, 7c)
Objective of the solution: The low-temperature deposition of selected thin oxide layers with the assistance of a multi plasma jet system. There are advanced diagnostic methods used for the measuring of plasma parameters in the course of depositing. The main objective is the deposition of thin ferroelectric Ba1-xSrxTiO3 and PbZr1-xTixO3 layers at low temperatures with high quality dielectric and ferroelectric properties. These parameters are measured within a wide span of frequencies and temperatures. The stress is put on the controlled depositing from the points of view of the grain sizes, the preciseness of the required chemical composition the defect density, oxygen vacancies, and dielectric properties, according to the measured plasma parameters. The resolution of the previous tasks should allow for depositing of gradient perovskite layers. Another task will be the depositing of high quality nanocrystalline layers of anatase with a small vacancy density and the precise stoichiometry. The objective is the achievement of a high depositing speed and of very good photocatalytic properties.

KJB100480601 “The use of ionic beams in studies of crystalline structures”, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is RNDr. Anna Macková. PhD., Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, the total costs of CZK 0.793 million, thereof CZK 0.793 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.262/0.262, 6b)
Objective of the solution: The characterising of LiTaO3 based crystalline structures, simple monocrystals of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 perovskites and Pb, Mg doped KTaO3 with the utilisation of ion beams. The crystalline materials and structures researched within this project are perspective in preparations of optical planar lasers. It is also about ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics. The deep profiles of dopants and the component composition of crystalline structures are measured by the RBS, ERDA, and PIXE methods. Positions of interstitial dopants in the volume subsidised crystals and the level of modification of crystalline structures could be determined by the innovative method of RBS channelling and crystalline structure changes are comparatively researched by XRD in co-operation with Forschungszentrum Rossendorf in Germany and by the Raman spectroscopy in co-operation with the Institute of Physics of AS CR. A part of the project relates also to the studies of super matrices and of the interface quality in these structures by the RBS channelling method. The results of these analyses will be confronted with other properties of the prepared structures.

KJB200410801 “Study of nano-structured materials consolidated from powder compacts by the ECAP technique”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is Ing. Jiří Dvořák, PhD., Institute of Physics of Materials of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.237 million, thereof CZK 1.237 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.427/0.427, 1e)
Objective of the solution: The powder metallurgy serves for the manufacture of bulk materials of metallic composite or ceramic powders. However, the high working temperatures during consolidations, which result in changes in the microstructure, but also the porousness of manufactured materials, are considered the critical problems of this technology. There have been results of successful experiments recently presented which related to the utilisation of severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques during the consolidation of metal and nanocomposite powder compacts. Materials prepared in this way do not contain pores and the non homogeneity and they are not contaminated by undesirable impurities during their preparation. There have been only few studies executed in the world which researched the mechanical properties of materials prepared in this way. The issue has not been researched in the Czech Republic at all. The main objective of the project is the preparation of bulk materials from powder metals and nanocomposites with the assistance of ECAP, and the consequent detailed research of these materials from the stability of the microstructure point of view, their mechanical properties at room or increased temperatures.

KJB201240701 “Nanocomposite coatings with higher wear resistance at higher temperatures”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing. Tomáš Vítů, Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, the total costs of CZK 2.153 million, thereof CZK 2.153 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.685/0.685, 1d)

- Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Ing. Tomáš Polcar, PhD
- Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, Mgr. Martin Stranyánek
Objective of the solution: The development of new nanocomposite coatings of improved wear resistance at high temperatures. The Cr-Al-Si-N coatings will be prepared with the use of the magnetron sputtering method. There will be new materials prepared in the course of the project, while the depositing process should be optimised. The coatings are characterised in detail, including the tribological tests, at high temperatures. The attention will be paid to the study of oxidation mechanisms, structural changes at temperatures, and to changes in mechanical parameters. The main wear mechanisms will be described on the basis of the analysis of wear marks and particles with the use of the advanced image processing. The set up of a model of layers’ wear, which should help in the prediction of wear of new materials, makes a part of the project.

KJB400400601 “Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical studies of carbon nanostructures”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is RNDr. Martin Kalbáč, PhD., J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 0.988 million, thereof CZK 0.988 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.336/0.336, 1c)
Objective of the solution: The study of electrochemical properties of SWCNT (a single wall carbon nanotubes), DWCNT (the double wall carbon nanotubes), the fullerene peapods (C60@SWCNT, C70@SWCNT, La@C82@SWCNT and Dy3N@C80@SWCNT). The properties are compared with the properties of highly organised fullerene layers. The research is based on both ex-situ and in-situ electrochemical measuring. The in-situ studies combine the electrochemistry with the Raman or VIS-NIR spectroscopy. The transfer of a charge is studied in varied electrolytes, including the so-called ion liquids. In the case of peapods and DWCNT, there are fullerene interactions studied, or the inner tubes with the wall of the outer tube. The electric shielding and the creation of new situations in the electronic fullerene and inner tubes structures are studied in detail. The organised films of fullerenes are studied with the assistance of STM.

KJB401630701 “Protein resistant surfaces and highly adherent surfaces – the new nanotechnological and bioanalytical methods testing their quality”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Mgr. Jan Přibyl, PhD., Masaryk University in Brno, Faculty of Science, the total costs of CZK 2.496 million, thereof CZK 2.496 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.832/0.832, 3d)
Objective of the solution: The research of specifically modified surfaces, which can be protein resistant in solutions, and complementary surfaces of the opposite properties - i.e., with the highly adhesive properties. The substances of these surfaces are synthetic polymers, but also proteins or polysaccharides. Surfaces modified in this way are irreplaceable in constructions of biosensors able to work in the environment with a high presence of proteins (e.g. the bloodstream); also in the construction of sterile packing of a minimal adherence of biomolecules or in the area of development of implanting materials. There are methods developed for testing of these layers’ quality based on biosensors (they allow the monitoring of the created layer’s quality and they continuously monitor the adherence of proteins to the prepared surfaces) and in nanotechnologies (AFM, the microscopy of atomic forces), which allow for the monitoring of the molecular composition of prepared structures and of the localisation of the adherence in the nanometric scale. There are also developed affinity and enzyme biosensors using the developed layers.


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