Nanotechnologie česká verze
  BITCOIN
Program „Standard grants“ (GA)
Vydáno dne 20. 08. 2009 (2706 přečtení)

Projects solved in the area of nanotechnologies

GA101/06/0490 “Scanning and analyses of surface textures of advanced materials for the highly precise managed technological methods”, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is Doc. Ing. Leoš Bumbálek, PhD., Brno University of Technology, FSI, the total costs of CZK 1.670 million, thereof CZK 1.670 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.560/0.560, 6e)
Objective of the solution: The scanning and analysis of surface textures of parts manufactured by highly precise technological processes, when their measurements are in micrometre or nanometre. The analysed surfaces include their geometrical and physical properties resulting from different manufacturing systems utilising the existing finalisation methods in the area of micro manufacturing. The project’s solution is based on the analysis of functional surfaces which shows that the surface properties have the decisive importance in quality improvements for managed highly precise technological methods. An important part of the project is the focus on custom-made surfaces with regard to varied functional applications. The project should also contribute to better understanding of the creation mechanism of a new surface, together with its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research are the preparation of a methodology of scanning and assessing of surface textures by 2D and 3D methods and the preparation of a set of frequency surface textures’ parameters.

GA101/07/0789 “Nanodiagnostics of defects within the 3D molecular dynamics”, 1/2007-12/2009, the researcher is Doc. Ing. Petr Hora, CSc., Institute of Thermomechanics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.515 million, thereof CZK 1.515 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.505/0.505, 6b)
Objective of the solution: The project utilises the atom simulation by the method of molecular dynamics (MD) for the gaining of information about possibilities of detecting pre-existing cavities and precipitates of nanoscopic sizes with the assistance of the comparison of scattered stress waves in perfect crystals and in crystals with the mentioned defects. This information can be beneficial for the acoustic non destructive detection of defects in nanostructured materials. There are also MD studies of the impact of Cu nanoparticles on the stability of cracks and nanocavities in the 3D alpha-iron crystals planned. These results could be useful for the better understanding of the so-called copper embrittlement of structural ferritic steels, including older reactor steels.

GA101/08/0299 “Research of intelligent composite parts, made of ultra-high-module fibres, in manufacturing machines and the matrices modified by nanoparticles”, 1/2008-12/2011, the researcher Doc. Ing. Václava Lašová, PhD., University of West Bohemia in Plzeň, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, the total costs of CZK 7.262 million, thereof CZK 7.262 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.836/1.836, 1b)

Co-researchers:
- Compo Tech PLUS, spol. s r.o., Ing. Ondrej Uher, PhD. - Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, prof. Ing. Milan Růžička, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The current trend of going to more progressive utilisation of composite materials in machinery designs is not completely effective because of the unsatisfactory research in the area of the use of ultrahigh modulated carbon fibres in combination with nanoparticles in the matrix. The recent research results related to technological possibilities in manufacturing show the need of the research of new constructions of completely non conventional shapes and kinds with integrated parts (smart structures). The main objective of the grant is the design of new constructional machinery parts of ultrahigh strength and with very progressive dynamic properties. The use of modern numerical methods will allow the development of calculation models and new designs, optimal processes and limit criteria for composite parts of non conventional constructional designs using advantages of these material kinds. The material and structural characteristics will be determined experimentally on model samples of new hub kinds.

GA101/08/1110 “Development of a new technology utilising the high level of deformation for the manufacturing of ultrafine grained materials”, the researcher is Prof. Ing. Stanislav Rusz, CSc., VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, the total costs of CZK 3.520 million, thereof CZK 3.520 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.139/1.139, 7d)
Objective of the solution: The development of new materials with ultrafine structures and of nanostructural materials is currently in the forefront of material research and manufacturing technologies worldwide. This issue is one of the main topics in the 7th Framework Programme by EU. The process substance relates to the achievement of a grain size of tested materials below 1 um. Sub microcrystalline materials with the average grain size in the range from 50 to 200 nm are characterised by their high formability, while their very good strength properties are maintained. An important part of studies of the existing research centres pays their attention to the issue of strengthening during the process of plastic deformation. The practical aspect of the given process depends on the possibility to increase of loading transferred by the constructional parts, manufactured of nanostructural materials, and on the increased security, when loaded by strengths higher than the strengths proposed in their constructional designs. The main objectives of the works in the project related to the verification of a new technology used in the manufacture of nanostructural materials, the so-called EHAD - the extrusion with high amounts of deformation.
The solution of the following areas is planned:
1. The supplementing of the existing workplace for the development of technologies for the manufacture of ultrafine grained materials with a matrix heating facility, an oven with the continuous temperature regulation, and laboratory digital microscope,
2. The design of a new technology achieving a high level of deformation by the change in the deformation way EHAD (the high deformation level extrusion),
3. The constructional design and manufacturing of forming tools for the EHAD technology,
4. The verification of the given technology with selected alloys of nonferrous metals, on the basis of Al, Cu, Mg, and Si,
5. Mathematical simulations of the given process,
6. The creation of a database of technological and forming parameters from the achievement of advantageous mechanical properties and plasticity of selected materials’ point of view.

GA102/06/0381 “Spintronic applications of ferromagnetic semiconductor nanostructures”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is Doc. RNDr. Jan Voves, CSc., Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, the total costs of CZK 2.782 million, thereof CZK 2.782 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.933/0.933, 2d)
Co-researcher:
- Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, RNDr. Miroslav Cukr, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The project proposes, prepares and characterises structures with the layers of magnetic semiconductors of the A3B5 kind supplemented with Mn. The main objectives of the proposed project are the study and optimising of these structures from the point of view of phenomena important for the function of spintronic parts. It is about the effective injection of spin polarised carriers, their transport and detection with the assistance of phenomena of dependent tunnelling, by the magnetic field managed resonance tunnelling by the double barrier, huge magnetoresistance, and the interaction of these carriers with radiation. The project has been based on the close co-operation of the part and application-oriented workplace of the Czech Technical University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, with the technological and theoretical groups in the Institute of Physics of AS CR. The solution will utilise experience from designing and simulation of semiconductor structures in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, the great theoretical knowledge from the area of ferromagnetic semiconductors, and the experience with the epitaxy layer growth in the Institute of Physics.

GA102/06/1106 “Metamaterials, nanostructures, and their applications”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is Prof. Ing. Ján Zehentner, DrSc., Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, the total costs of CZK 2.574 million, thereof CZK 2.574 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.915/0.915, 6b)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Prof. Ing. Václav Švorčík, DrSc.
- Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, Doc. Ing. Vladimír Hnatowicz, DrSc.
Objective of the solution: The research of new “particles” that should allow the simple manufacturing of bulk metamaterials of negative effective permittivity and/or negative effective permeability. The new medium will be useful in the microwave technology, in qualitatively new applications, and in the volume saving designs of passive circuits and antennas. The material will be developed by the cascade arrangement of layers with periodically assembled “particles”. The parallel research of sub micron metal polarisation matrices in polymer substrates should be finalised by the design and manufacture of a waveguide attenuator with the continuously adjustable attenuation. The research of metal nanolayers’ depositing on polymer films, of the optimal metal and polymer thickness, and of the metal diffusion into the polymer should result in the MIM structure than would be technologically useful in switches and in parts with the negative differential resistance. The project stages have both exploratory and application characters. The project creates good conditions for the scientific education of students and post graduates.

GA102/06/1624 “Micro and nano sensor structures and systems with the inbuilt intelligence (MINASES)”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is Prof. Ing. Miroslav Husák, CSc., Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, the total costs of CZK 3.916 million, thereof CZK 3.916 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.310/1.310, 4a)

Co-researcher:
- Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Prof. Ing. Radimír Vrba, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The development of new kinds of intelligent integrated micro and nanostructure sensors and actuators, including the electronic circuits for the processing and transmission of data signals. There will be means of microtechnologies used together with nanotechnologies and nanotechniques, especially in the area of materials and structures for chemical sensors and biosensors. The project includes the modelling, property simulation, and the development of a RF MEMS switch, the MEMS structures for an absorption sensor of the vf radiation, the development of active integrated tensiometers and wireless Bluetooth, the ZigBee transfer of data signals, the development of sensors utilising polymer electronics, the development of new optochemical sensors for the measuring of pollutant concentrations in the environment, the development of micro and nanosensors for chemical and biochemical applications, the insertion of intelligence into integrated sensors and systems, and the mutual impacts of electromagnetic energy radiation on integrated circuits and biosystems.

GA102/08/1474 “Local optical and electrical characterising of optoelectronic structures having the nanometric resolution”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is Prof. RNDr. Pavel Tománek, CSc., Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, the total costs of CZK 1.331 million, thereof CZK 1.331 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.607/0.607, 6b)
Objective of the solution: The project focuses on local characterising of optical and electronic properties of optoelectronic structures, including the electroluminescence structures. As there is not much information about nanoscopic properties of these structures, there will be the relatively new method of scanning microscopy, so called near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM), in this workplace. The main objective of this project is the understanding and the better quality and longer life span of these structures. They get worse by absorption, inner reflection and by other losing mechanisms. The shape of the electromagnetic field nearby parts and the main mechanisms of the local electroluminescence will be studied with the focus on the aging caused by strengthened diffusion of ion additives and by the vacancy of a carrier. In order to find the quality and the life span of parts, there will be the basic local optic and electric characteristics researched, with the assistance of the noise spectroscopy method, the local photo and electroluminescence, and the nearby optic field.

GA102/08/1546 “Miniaturised intelligent systems and nanostructured electrodes for chemical, biological and pharmaceutical applications (NANIMEL)”, 1/2008-12/2012, the researcher is Ing. Jaromír Hubálek, PhD., Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, the total costs of CZK 9.990 million, thereof CZK 9.990 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 2.169/2.169, 6c)

Co-researcher:
- Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Faculty of Agronomy, Doc. Ing. René Kizek, PhD.
Objective of the solution: This project’s objective is the research of different material’s nanostructures creation (e.g. Bi, Ga, and Galinstan) on planar microelectrodes as sensitive parts of electrochemical sensors with the goal to achieve the high sensitivity in electrochemical analyses like, for example, the detection of heavy metals, the research of bioactive substances for the modification of microelectrodes as the affinity layer in biomolecules’ analyses. There will be a miniature mobile system for in field and laboratory measuring designed, together with the microchip developed for microelectrodes and targeted applications. Microelectrodes with nanostructures will be integrated in the sensor field together with the developed integrated electronic intelligent system. This unique mobile facility will allow for the execution of a large number of varied analyses within a short time, by different methods, including with electrodes, like, for example, the protein analyses, DNA, etc. This should make research works, related to electrochemical analyses, much more efficient.

GA103/06/1856 “Determining the physical properties of the cement with nanoindentation”, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is Prof. Ing. Zdeněk Bittner, DrSc., Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Civil Engineering, the total costs of CZK 3.078 million, thereof CZK 3.078 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.026/1.026, 7a)
Objective of the solution: The development of an experimental methodology necessary for the description of microscopic non elastic deformations in materials and their applications on cement composites. The proposed process is based on the combination of several measuring techniques, e.g.: the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), the atomic forces microscope (AFM), and nanoindentation. The works’ objective will be the determination of quality of the preparation of sample surfaces on the AFM basis. The measuring with the assistance of nanoindentation will be used for the determination of micromechanical properties of selected cement pastes with additives. There will be also the 3D topological model of the permanently deformed sample surface developed with the assistance of AFM.

GA103/08/1639 “Microstructures of inorganic alumosilicate polymers”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is Prof. Ing. Zdeněk Bittner, DrSc., Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Civil Engineering, the total costs of CZK 6.086 million, thereof CZK 6.086 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.021/1.021, 1e, the nanotechnology research share - 50% of the allocated sum)

Co-researcher:
- Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Doc. RNDr. František Škvára, DrSc.
Objective of the solution: Inorganic aluminosilicate polymers make a new perspective material group of extraordinary properties, when it comes to the resistance against acidity, durability, fire resistance, frost resistance by the fixation of heavy metals, and mechanical properties. The raw materials are natural aluminosilicate substances like clays and related minerals, but also wastes from inorganic and energy related manufacturing processes - fly ash from power stations, slugs from the metallurgy of ferrous and some nonferrous metals. The synthesis and studies of these polymers at the nano, micro and macro levels require an interdisciplinary approach in chemistry, physics, mechanics, and construction material areas. The role of water and alkaline cations at the nanolevel, the creation mechanism and factors influencing the preparation of aluminosilicate polymers have not been satisfactorily explained so far. The project should determine properties of polymers resulting from their structures at the nano, micro, and macro levels.

GA104/06/0437 “Development of plasma-chemical processes for the development of intelligent polymer nanostructures”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is Doc. RNDr. Vladimír Čech, PhD., Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, the total costs of CZK 2.370 million, thereof CZK 2.370 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.790/0.790, 7c)
Objective of the solution: The technological utilisation of functional polymers often requires their preparation in the form of thin layers. A number of techniques for the thin homogeneous layers’ preparation have been already developed and some of them are suitable for the preparation of high quality polymer layers which could be frequently reproduced. This technology level allows for the management of a more complicated polymer structure. This project should utilise and extend experience from the joint Czech-Japanese research done in the area of complicated plasma-chemical processes and the experience with the nanoindentation technique gained within the joint Czech-British project. The main project’s objective is the managed construction of polymer nanostructures (layered or gradient), when utilising the polymerisation technology in plasma. This conception presents a new technological progress in the creative designing and utilisation of complex layered systems for intelligent polymer nanostructures.

GA104/06/0642 „Thin Films of Magnetically Doped A(iii)N Semiconductors for Spin Electronics Applications“, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is prof. Ing. David Sedmidubský, Dr., Institute of Chemical Technology in Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, the total cost of CZK 3,039 million, thereof CZK 3,039 milion from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0,974/0,974, 2d)

Co-researcher:
Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, Ing. Dr. Jiří Hejtmánek, CSc.
Objectives of the solution: The transition metal (TM) doped A3B5 semiconductors belong to a new class of advanced materials, dilute magnetic semiconductors, which have recently received much experimental and theoretical attention as a suitable spin source for spintronic devices, such as spin transitors, LEDs, magnetic RAMs and sensors. Some of the highly doped wide band gap materials like (Ga,Mn)N reveal a ferromagnetic like behavior near and above room temperature, which is considered as a major criterium for spintronic applications. The project focuses on material and technological aspects of the TM doped AIIIN thin films fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) technique. Three different methods are employed to incorporate TM (Mn, Cr, Fe, Co) into GaN (AlN) thin layers: (a) ion implantation followed by annealing, (b) diffusion at elevated temperatures from vapor deposited metallic layers into intrinsic GaN, and, (c) in-situ MOVPE using metalorganic precursors (C5H2)2TM as TM sources.

GA104/06/1087 “Development of catalytic processes for the preparation of conjugated polymers with heteroatoms and their functional nanocomposites”, 1/2006 – 12/2008, the researcher is Prof. RNDr. Jiří Vohlídal, CSc., Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Science, the total costs of CZK 2.873 million, thereof CZK 2.873 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.988/0.988, 5b)
Objective of the solution: The development of new methods of catalytic polymerisation of monomers of the aniline, pyrrol, and thiophen kinds to the relevant conductive conjugated polymers having the high purity and the utilisation of these catalytic processes for the direct preparation of these polymers’ nanocomposites with the inorganic phase like, for example, TiO2, Li2TiO3, and ZnO, which are studied from the point of view of their utilisation in constructions of photovoltaic cells. The first part of the project relates to the tune up of the redox potential of the catalytic Fe2+-H2O2 system by a suitable selection of ligands and by optimising systems of these kinds for the polymerisation of individual monomers. The second part of the project relates to the implementation of new redox catalytic systems based on molybdates which could be re-oxidated by oxygen. The new method should provide polymers the contamination of which by inorganic compounds should be hundreds, or up to a thousand times lower, when compared with polymers prepared by stoichiometrical polymerisations.

GA104/07/1093 “Preparation of composite nanoparticles by the aerosol process”, 1/2007-12/2010, the head researcher is Ing. Pavel Moravec, CSc., Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.638 million, thereof CZK 3.638 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.914/0.914, 7b)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec, RNDr. Snejana Bakardjieva, PhD.
- Tampere University of Technology, Finland, Doc. Jyrki Mikael Mäkelä, PhD.
Objective of the solution: The preparation of nanoparticles by the method of chemical depositing of vapours in a tube reactor with the heated wall. The first step will synthetise: (i) A single component metallic and ceramic nanoparticles (Co, Ni, Pd, MnO) of a large potential in applications by the thermal disintegration of the relevant organo-metallic precursors. The next step will be the preparation of a two-component particle by the simultaneous disintegration of two precursors; (ii) The mixed particle ceramics-metal or the ceramic particles coated by metallic material (TiO2-Co, Al2O3-Ni and Al2O3-Pd) with the potential utilisation in catalysis and composite two-component particles metal-ceramics (Co-SiO2) and ceramics-ceramics (MnO-SiO2) with the potential utilisation as sensors or in electronics. The morphology, the crystalline structure and the chemical composition of particles will be researched with SEM, TEM, SAED, XRD, EDS, and others. Results of the experiments in the tube reactor will be compared with results of the experiments done by the liquid flame spray reactor at Tampere University of technology.

GA104/07/1127 “Mathematic modelling and the experimental study of the mesoscopic structure creation in polymer materials”, 1/2007-12/2009, the researcher is Ing. Juraj Kosek, Dr., Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, the total costs of CZK 2.280 million, thereof CZK 2.280 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.760/0.760, 6d)
Objective of the solution: The project deals with the morphogenesis and the relation between the mesoscopic structure and properties of the following polymer materials: (i) porous semi-crystalline particles of polyalkenes and (ii) polymer foam. The first project’s objective is the experimental study and mathematical modelling of creation of the morphology of polyalkene particles occurring by the catalytic polymerisation. The evolution of polymer foams, in amorphous, semi-crystalline and branched polymers, is experimentally studied and modelled at the same time. The second objective is the experimental research and the mathematical modelling of relations between the structure and properties of polymer materials (the mechanical, deformation, thermally insulating and transport properties). The instruments for the achievement of these objectives are the prepared experimental facilities for gravimetric measuring at higher temperatures and pressures, for the microscopy observation of the morphogenesis in a pressure vessel, and for the inversion gaseous chromatography taking place at higher pressures, but also the advanced methods of the mesoscopic 3D modelling.

GA104/07/1400 “Depositing of oxide catalysts for the VOC oxidation on shaped carriers and their modification by nanoparticles of precious metals”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Ing. Květa Jirátová, CSc., Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.075 million, thereof CZK 3.075 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.025/1.025, 5b)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Doc. Ing. František Kovanda, CSc.
- Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec, RNDr. Tomáš Grygar, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The systematic studies of possible ways of depositing of precursors of the hydrotalcite kind on a selected shaped carrier for the purpose of increased mechanical strength of the resulting catalyst, the reduction of the amount of active components per weight unit of the catalyst, and the improvement of its thermal resistance. The study of impacts of the modification of these catalysts by a small amount (10 - 1% of the weight) of precious metals from the group of Pt, Pd, Ag, Au, Rh on the physical-chemical properties of the catalysts and on the total oxidation course of the selected model chemical compounds (ethanol, toluene, hexane). The research will focus on the most active oxidation systems found during the solution of the grant by GA CR 104/04/2116. The solution of the project should result in the finding of an optimal precursor depositing process on a shaped carrier, especially the clarification of the relation between the carrier’s properties and the creation of the active surface layer of the oxide on the carrier. There should be an optimal promoter of the catalytic activity and oxidation catalysts’ selectivity found for the total oxidation of volatile substances.

GA104/08/0229 “Thin layers deposited by pulse lasers”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is Doc. Ing. Petr Němec, PhD., University of Pardubice, FCHT, the total costs of CZK 3.129 million, thereof CZK 3.129 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.053/1.053, 7c)
Objective of the solution: There will be the advanced depositing method - the pulse laser depositing (PLD), used within the project for the preparation of thin layers (nanolayers) of amorphous chalcogenides and polymer materials. The project’s objective is the optimising of the PLD process for the purpose of preparation of applicable high quality thin layered structures and their physical-chemical characterising. The project’s results should contribute to the basic knowledge about the PLD process and about the phenomenon of photo and thermally induced changes in properties of solid amorphous substances. It is assumed that the gained results would prove the suitability of the PLD technique for the preparation of new thin layers of parameters which address the requirements on their applications as modern materials in optics, optoelectronics, electronics, etc.

GA104/08/0435 “Smart structured mesoporous TiO2 layers with the antibacterial and controlled variable wetting properties”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is Ing. Jiří Rathouský, CSc., J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.738 million, thereof CZK 3.738 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.382/1.382, 1d)

Co-researcher:
- Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Doc. Dr. Ing. Josef Krýsa
Objective of the solution: The arranged mesoporous TiO2 films with the precisely controlled morphology properties and crystallisation will be prepared by the optimised EISA method. Thanks to their extraordinary properties, they will show the significantly higher photocatalytic activity in disintegration of deposits of liquid and solid organic substances, when compared with the non porous films. The reason is the removal of the restrictive impact of the O2 and H2O molecules’ transport to the photocatalyticly active surface. These mesoporous layers will show also the easily achievable and very stable superhydrophilicity induced by the UV radiation. The synergy of these properties will allow the construction of self-cleaning films of much higher effectiveness, when compared with the existing materials. A special attention will be paid to the in-depth understanding of physical and chemical principles governing the wetting properties of textured surfaces. There will be new concepts prepared for the management of liquid interaction with the surface.

GA104/08/1501 “Preparation, characterising and chemical properties of supported gold-based bimetallic nanoparticles”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is Ing. Jan Plšek, PhD., J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.637 million, thereof CZK 3.637 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.213/1.213, 7b)
Objective of the solution: The objective of the proposed research is the finding and optimising of preparation conditions for supported bimetallic nanoparticles Au-Pd and Au-Pd of the required composition and with the atomically pure surface. The nanoparticles will be prepared by the controlled sequential vapour deposition , or by the laser ablation. The base, on which the nanoparticles would be deposited, will be oxides important for the heterogeneous catalysis (Al2O3, ZrO2, WOx, and VOx) and graphite. The created systems will be characterised by the surface sensitive techniques: XPS, SRPES, ISS, FEM, and AFM. The adsorption properties of CO, NO (O2, C2H4) on bimetallic nanoparticles will be studied with the assistance of photoelectron spectroscopy and TPD. The electrochemical properties on the graphite will be researched with the assistance of the cyclic voltametry. The bimetallic alloy nanoparticles containing gold make up a group of materials which is important, among other applications, also for the heterogeneous catalysis and for the development of fuel cells.

GA106/06/0044 “Polymer nanocomposite with multiphase polymer matrix; action of nanofiller as reinforcement and compatibilizer”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is Ing. Ivan Kelnar, CSc., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.771 million, thereof CZK 1.771 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.577/0.577, 1g)
Objective of the solution: There has been the important ability of particles of the layered silicate - compacting of non mixing polymer mixtures, recently found. However, the mechanic behaviour of these systems has not been studied yet. The objective of this project is the in detail study of nanocomposites with a multi component polymer matrix, i.e. the systems in which the high solidifying and compacting effects of nanofills are combined. One of the results should be the clarification of the dependency of the mechanical behaviour, including the fracture mechanics, on the morphology, i.e. the structure of the polymer matrix, the locality, and the level of nanofill dispersion. There will be the possibilities of the structure influencing by the modifications of polymers and nanofills verified (with the objective to find the chemical relations between the fill and the polymer part) as well as the cointercalation by reactive compounds, preparation conditions, and the order of parts’ mixing. The objective is the understanding of the main factors influencing structures of these systems and of the scope of compacting abilities of the nanofills.

GA106/06/0270 “Nanoceramic materials based on zircon oxide – the study of the microstructure by the positron annihilation spectroscopic method”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is RNDr. Ivan Procházka, CSc., Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, the total costs of CZK 0.994 million, thereof CZK 0.994 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.315/0.315, 1f)
Objective of the solution: The complex research of nanopowder and nanoceramic materials based on the zircon oxide. The basic experimental method is the positron annihilation spectroscopy. There will be the microstructure studied in detail with the stress put on the influence of defects and of alloying components on these materials’ properties.

GA106/06/0327 “Crystallisation of amorphous and thin nanocrystalline layers”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is Doc. RNDr. Radomír Kužel, CSc., Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, the total costs of CZK 2.884 million, thereof CZK 2.884 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.938/0.938, 1d)

Co-researcher:
- University of West Bohemia in Plzeň, Faculty of Applied Science, Prof. Ing. Jindřich Musil, DrSc.
Objective of the solution: The properties of thin layers depend very much on their real structures, or crystallinity. The crystallisation of amorphous and nanocrystalline layers is monitored in two cases - the TiO2 layers, which have been recently applied in varied industries, especially thanks to the photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning ability, and the hard amorphous or nanocrystalline layers, especially in the Zr-Si-N system. In the first case, the goal is to reduce the crystallisation temperature, while the second one tries to increase it. In addition, the TiO2 layers are doped with suitable elements for the purpose of a shift of the banned zone into the visible area. The real layers’ structure and its development, dependent on the temperature, are studied with the assistance of the complex characterising of X-frays diffraction and reflection, i.e. the phase composition, microdeformation, the reminder tension, the layers’ thickness, the roughness of the surface, the analysis of crystallite sizes and shapes and their preferential orientation in the case of both annealed layers and in situ by measuring.

GA106/06/1486 “Impacts of nanoparticles on the damage and life-span of thermoplastic composites”, 1/2006-12/2008, the head researcher is Ing. Robert Válek, Ph.D., SVÚM a.s. Praha, the total costs of CZK 2.725 million, thereof CZK 2.725 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.925/0.925, 1g)

Co-researcher:
- Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ing. Jan Rybníček, PhD.
Objective of the solution: There are conditions of the composite disruption in the relation to its microstructure studied on the basis of the behaviour of thermoplastic PP, PA/organic clay-based nanocomposites, when under stress for a long time by pulling or impact loading at high deformation speeds. The nanocomposite properties are primarily governed by the properties of the interphase which, thanks to the size of reinforcing nanoparticles, has a much bigger surface, when compared with composites filled with conventional particles. The creep of the nanocomposite and of a not reinforced matrix is studied in axial pulling stresses on standard and notched testing pieces (the modelling of corrosion effects during the stress in tensides. The measured data and the find microstructural changes will be utilised for the clarification of the creep deformation mechanism and the creep disruption. The effect of the matrix reinforcing on the toughness of the nanocomposite will be studied at the same time on the basis of parameters gained by the methods of instrument measuring of the notched toughness, disruption by penetration during multi axial tension, and by the measuring of the fracture toughness.

GA106/06/1576 “Porous composite materials with the polyamide lining and the siloxane matrix with nano-hydroxyapatite as biomaterials”, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is Ing. Karel Balík, CSc., Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.716 million, thereof CZK 3.716 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.338/1.338, 3d)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Physiology of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, MUDr. Lucie Bačáková, CSc.
- Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Doc. Ing. Miroslav Svoboda, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The design and development of composite materials of optimal sizes of open pores and with suitable mechanical properties used as bone tissue replacements. The composite consists of a polyamide textile placed in the siloxane matrix, where there are micro or nano crystals of hydroxyapatite regularly dispersed. There will be tests executed on the prepared composites and implants in vitro, in vivo, and the histologic tests. The composite applications will be done on selected bone replacements.

GA106/07/0805 “Complex structural analysis of the property gradients of surface layers of important technological materials after their mechanical treatment”, 1/2007-12/2009, the researcher is Ing. Martin Čerňanský, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.920 million, thereof CZK 1.920 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.640/0.640, 6e)

Co-researcher:
- Czech Technical University in Praha, FJFI, Doc. Ing. Nikolaj Ganev, CSc.
Objectives of the solution: The complex research of steel surface layers after certain ways of the mechanical surface machining. In contrast to the existing works, this project is based on the fact that the surface layer has got certain other than zero thickness and that the structure, tension, and material properties change along this thickness. There will be identical sets of samples of selected steel kinds researched with the methods of the X-ray diffraction (the phase analysis, the X-ray tensometry, the analysis of diffraction lines’ analysis), nanoindentation, and with the method of the surface acoustic waves for the purpose of determining the structure gradients (the phase composition, crystallite sizes, and microdeformations), gradients of the reminding macroscopic tensions and mechanical properties (the hardness and elastic modules). There will be the summary interpretation of the mentioned structure parameters, of the macro and micro tension states, and of the measured characteristics of the mechanical properties prepared.

GA106/07/0949 “New ways of magnetic nanocomposites (spinel ferrites) preparation and the study of their physical properties”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is RNDr. Daniel Nižňanský, PhD., Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Science, the total costs of CZK 8.312 million, thereof CZK 8.312 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 2.595/2.492, 2d)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, RNDr. Jiří Plocek, PhD.
- Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, Ing. Ján Lančok, PhD.
Objective of the solution: The preparation of ferrites of the spinel structure in diamagnetic matrices and their physical characterising. These nanocomposites are prepared by either chemical (sol-gel) or physical (laser ablation and magnetron sputtering) preparation methods. There are both classic and the new preparation processes for sol-gel used. The new process is based on the preparation of the compound the molecule of which contains both precursor of the matrix and active substances. There is the combination of laser and magnetron sputtering used for the preparation of nanocomposites in the form of thin layers. The resulting samples will be characterised by the X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, IC spectroscopy, optic and magnetic measurings, and the Mössbauer spectroscopy. Different physical and chemical preparation methods will result in different surface structures, which will influence the physical properties. The attention will be paid to the finding of composites providing extraordinary physical properties suitable for the construction of functional parts.

GA106/07/1149 “Bioactive and photocatalytic sol-gel nanolayers”, 1/2007-12/2009, the head researcher is Prof. Ing. Josef Matoušek, DrSc., Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Technology, the total costs of CZK 2.265 million, thereof CZK 2.265 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.750/0.750, 3d)
Objective of the solution: There will be bioactive layers based on TiO2 and SiO2 and calcium-phosphate prepared with the sol-gel method and there will be their bioactivity in vitro determined and their modification possibility by Ca2+ and Na+ verified. There will be also active TiO2 nanolayers prepared on substrates of different material kinds. Beside TiO2 layers, there will be also layers combined with other oxides prepared as well as the layers with dispersed silver nanoparticles, or layers doped with other additives, and hybrid layers, where the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) will make the polymer part. There will be standard mechanical and chemical properties of these layers, determining their practical use, established and their photocatalytic activity will be verified. Their antibacterial properties will be experimentally researched. Apart of outcomes useful in the practice, there will be information about these layers’ microstructures, composition and textures gained and the knowledge of their creation mechanism and their growth mathematical model will be made more precise.

GA106/08/1440 “Iron and iron oxides based nanoparticles for magnetic separation processes”, 1/2008-12/2011, the researcher is Ing. Oldřich Schneeweiss, DrSc, Institute of Physics of Materials of AS CR, v.v.i, Brno, the total costs of CZK 10.259 million, thereof CZK 10.259 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 2.136/2.136, 1a)

Co-researcher:
- Palacky University Olomouc, Faculty of Science, Prof. RNDr. Miloslav Mašláň, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The coordinated complex experimental research of nanocrystalline particles of iron and iron oxides, which provide for interesting magnetic properties suitable in applications within magnetic separation processes. The nanocrystalline particles alpha-Fe, of magnetite and maghemite with graphite shell will be gained with the assistance of processes based on reactions in the solid phase in reduction atmospheres from precursors created by oxides, hydro oxides and Fe compounds. There will be the structure and phase compositions analysed in the synthetised materials (XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, IR, and TG/DTA) as well as the sizes and morphology (TEM, AFM, DLS, and BET) and magnetic behaviour (Mössbauer spectroscopy, VSM, and SQUID). The nanocrystalline powders will be tested from the point of view of their applications in biomagnetic detoxication processes, magnetism separations used in the mineralogy and in ecological applications (the purification of water and air).

GA/202/06/0531 “Reflexion and wave guiding phenomena in magnetic nanostructures”, 1/2006 – 12/2008, the researcher is Prof. Ing. Štefan Višňovský, DrSc., Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, the total costs of CZK 5.017 million, thereof CZK 5.017 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.672/1.672, 6b)

Co-researcher:
- VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Prof. Ing. Jaromír Pištora, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The basic research of multilayers and nanostructures based on magnetic oxides and metals. The research is motivated with the use for the magnetic information recording, magnetic and magnetooptic (MO) sensors, spin electronics, and integrated optoelectronics. The project takes advantage of the original experimental equipment for the magnetooptic (MO) spectroscopic ellipsometry, MO vector magnetometry, the analysis of surfaces with the assistance of evanescent waves and experience from the modelling of optic feedback in multilayers, side-periodical structures, and the non reciprocal MO waveguides. It utilises the combination of the classic and spectroscopic MO ellipsometry and of the computer-assisted simulations for the metrology of magnetic periodical structures with the resolution below the classic limit. The research takes place in cooperation with university laboratories in France, Japan, USA, and Germany.

GA202/06/0718 “Quantum dots’ engineering”, 1/2006 – 12/2008, the researcher is Ing. Jiří Oswald. CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 3.270 million, thereof CZK 3.270 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.046/1.046, 1a)

Co-researchers:
- Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Doc. Ing. Pavel Hrazdíra, CSc.
- Masaryk University in Brno, Faculty of Science, Doc. Mgr. Dominik Munzar, Dr.
Objective of the solution: The preparation of vertically correlated multilayer structures of quantum dots (QD) InAs with the high intensity of luminescence. There are structures prepared with defined properties like, for example, the emission wave length, energy difference between the lowest and the second lowest radiation interface in QD and the area QD density important for the use in optoelectronics. The layered structures of correlated QD are prepared with the method of gaseous epitaxy from organic-metallic compounds (MOVPE) in the growth Stransky-Krastanov mode. Their properties are tuned up by changes in the number of layers, variable thickness of separating GaAs layers between the InAs quantum dots’ layers, and by changes in the chemical composition and the thickness of the buffer layer. The samples are characterised with the structural and optical methods, especially with the assistance of dispersed X-ray radiation, TEM, AFM, luminescence, absorption, reflection, and photoconductivity. In parallel, there are theoretical studies of impacts of the buffer layer and of the vertical correlation on the electron structure of quantum dots organised.

GA202/07/0456 “New materials for spintronics: Computer assisted designs of magnetically doped semiconductors”, 1/2007 – 12/2009, the researcher is RNDr. František Máca, CSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.763 million, thereof CZK 1.763 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.573/0.573, 2d)
Objective of the solution: The understanding and the design of new material and new phenomena in the area of spin electronics. The process basis is made by calculations of electron and magnetic properties based on the formality of the density functional that is especially suitable for the realistic description of their basic properties. The project deals with classic materials, but also with mixed crystals which are optimised for much more suitable property. The studied materials are quaternary alloys like, for example, Li(Ga, Mn)As and (Ga, Mn)(As, P). The calculations of magnetic properties should allow the determination of decisive exchange mechanisms, the impact of other additives, and the finding of relations between the creation of the magnetic moment and the electron structure of the host material. There are both own and taken over calculation programmes, based on the first principles, utilised for the gaining of results. The critical temperatures of magnetic arrangements, which are very important for technological applications, will be gained from the calculated parameters of exchange interactions.

GA202/07/0601 “GaAs and Ga1-xMnxAs nanolayer surfaces prepared by the low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy”, 1/2007 – 12/2010, the researcher is Doc. RNDr. Igor Bystroň, DrSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 2.437 million, thereof CZK 2.437 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.523/0.523, 1d)
Objective of the solution: Crystalline GaAs nanolayers are prepared by the low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (LT MBE) and controlled in situ with the assistance of RHEED. The mentioned epitaxy allows for insertion of magnetic impurities into a semiconductor and it thus result in the perspective creation of a material that combines magnetic properties with the advanced semiconductor technology. The low-temperature growth provides nanolayers of physical properties dependent on growth conditions and on the consequent tempering. The samples are transported in the ultrahigh vacuum to the angular electron spectrometer. There are measured intensities of the electron beams diffracted from the surface, energy and angle differentiated photoelectron spectra emitted from a valence band and from inner atom levels. The experimental data will be interpreted theoretically with the assistance of the dynamic LEED theory, one-level photoemission model, and the photoelectron diffraction from the final set of atoms.

GA202/07/0643 “Electron transport in organic-inorganic nanoparts”, 1/2007 – 12/2009, the researcher is Mgr. Miroslav Menšík, Dr., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 1.635 million, thereof CZK 1.635 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.545/0.545, 6b)

Co-researcher:
- Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, RNDr. Karel Král, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The theoretical modelling of semiconductor nano-devices with the stress put on organic and inorganic material components for the purpose of understanding these elements and assisting their practical use. The typical studied devices are the emission diodes (LED) and molecular transistors using organic material components. There is the kinetic luminescence of emission diodes (LED) with nanoparticles in polymer organic matrices analysed. The electronic properties of molecular transistors are studied in their dependency on the selection of material components. There will be the impact of matrix vibrations on the properties of studied elements calculated, but also the quantum tunnelling. In order to gain data characterising real devices, some model systems will be prepared technologically and measured.

GA/202/07/0818 “Silicon nanophotonics – from individual nanocrystals to photonic structures”, 1/2007 – 12/2009, the researcher is Doc. RNDr. Jan Valenta, PhD., Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, the total costs of CZK 4.999 million, thereof CZK 4.999 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.230/1.230, 2b)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, RNDr. Kateřina Herynková, PhD.
- Czech Technical University in Praha, Faculty of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Dr. Ing. Anton Fojtík, CSc.
- University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Physical Biology Institute, Doc. RNDr. František Vácha, PhD.
Objective of the solution: The project develops in parallel the two perspective areas:
(1) Experimental techniques characterising nanostructures: the optical microspectroscopy (able to provide information about individual nanocrystals and about larger photonic structures) and non linear optical methods (providing information about the excitation mechanism and deexcitation and kinetics of photoinduced processes).
(2) Nanotechnology of silicon materials with the goal of optimising their properties for the use in optoelectronics, or sensors and biocompatible substances. The joining of these two areas should allow for the achievement of progress in the understanding of mechanisms of luminescence and optical gain in silicon nanostructures, of the impact of surface states and defects, and of the emission changes caused by the insertion of nanocrystals into photonic structures (the microresonators and waveguides).

GA202/07/1669 “Depositing of stable thermomechanical nanostructured diamond like thin layers in dual-frequency capacitive discharges”, 1/2007 – 12/2011, the researcher is RNDr. Vilma Buršíková, PhD., Masaryk University in Brno, Faculty of Science, the total costs of CZK 6.579 million, thereof CZK 6.579 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.309/1.309, 1d)

Co-researchers:
- Czech Metrology Institute, Brno, Mgr. Petr Klapetek, PhD.
- Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec, RNDr. Vratislav Peřina, CSc.
- Institute of Scientific Instruments of AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, Ing. Jaroslav Svoboda, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The development of a depositing system for the preparation of the thermal stable nanostructured diamond-like carbon layers with the use of dual-frequency capacitive plasma (DFCCP). The controlled growth of layers should be achieved by the combination of the high frequency actuation, which ensures the stability and the high plasma density, and the low-frequency actuation, which controls independently the ions’ energy. The subject of the study is the finding of an optimal combination of the high and low frequency actuation (the continual or pulse actuation) allowing the balanced coating of not flat cascading substrates’ surfaces and the substantial decrease of the inner tensions in the layers. Complex DFCCP diagnostics and the computer-assisted simulation, for the description and understanding of processes taking place in the course of depositing, make parts of the project. The prepared layers will be in detail characterised from the point of view of their structures (RBS, ERDA, TOF ERDA, HRTEM, SEM, etc.), but also from the point of view of their properties (e.g. ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, and the micro and nanoindentation).

GA202/08/0178 “Synthesis of magnetic Fe-based nanoparticles in low-temperature microwave plasma”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researcher is Mgr. Vít Kudrle, PhD., Masaryk University in Brno, Faculty of Science, the total costs of CZK 3.691 million, thereof CZK 3.691 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.575/1.575, 1a)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Physics of Materials of AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, Ing. Bohumil David
- Institute of Scientific Instruments of AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, Mgr. Jiřina Matějková
Objective of the project: The project’s objective is the synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with the assistance of microwave plasma, their characterising and optimising of their properties, while considering their use in new magnetic materials and for the synthesis catalysis of carbon nanotubes, etc. There will be the microwave charge with the two basic arrangements utilised for the nanoparticle synthesis.
The arrangements fundamentally differentiate the inner plasma parameters -
(a) the charge with the surface wave at low pressure ~1 kPa,
(b) the torch charge at the atmospheric pressure. Vapours of organic iron compounds will make the iron source. There will be the ferro-pentacarbonyl tested. As the iron particles tend to oxide in the atmospheric pressure, these particles will be made passive. The nanoparticles will be studied with the methods of structural and morphology analyses. There will be also their functional properties researched, especially their catalytic abilities and magnetic properties at both low and high temperatures.

GA202/08/0722 “Physical properties of high-temperature superconductors having nanoscopic defects”, 1/2008-12/2009, the researcher is RNDr. Miloš Jirsa, DSc., Institute of Physics of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 0.800 million, thereof CZK 0.800 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.394/0.394, 6b)
Objective of the project: The superconductors of the (RE)Ba2Cu3O7 type provide for huge application potential as materials for the massive superconducting magnets with the magnetic field of up to 20 Tesla. They are thus suitable for a number of compact applications, e.g. in mobile diagnostic instruments. Defects in the crystal matrix, especially the nanoscopic ones that are comparable with the core sizes of superconductive whirls, have important roles in increases of superconductive currents and in their time stabilisation. The relevant interactions have not been yet satisfactorily described and theoretically understood. The role of the defects’ homogenous assembly has been thus also unknown. The project is based on the existing close co-operation with leading technological centres. Experimental and theoretical studies of the magnetising, transport and structural properties of new composites make parts of the project. The project also focuses on the realistic theoretical description of these interactions with special attention paid to conditions of the high defects’ concentration in textured materials and in big crystals, and of their behaviour in extreme situations.

GA202/08/1688 “The use of physical study methods related to the adsorption of nucleic acids and proteins at interfaces in medical diagnostics and in studies of biocompatibility”, 1/2008-12/2010, the researchers is Prof. RNDr. Vladimír Vetterl, DrSc., Institute of Biophysics of AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, the total costs of CZK 2.052 million, thereof CZK 2.052 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.684/0.684, 3f)
Objective of the solution: The development of electrochemical and optical methods for the cheap and sensitive determination of nucleotide sequences in oligonucleotides and their utilisation in medical diagnostics. Other project’s objectives are the finding of optimal conditions on the ODN immobilisation in DNA biosensors, optimal methods of a sensitive detection of hybridisation and the microdetection of ODN samples in small volumes. A similar methodological approach will be used for the determination of conditions on the achievement of the optimal biocompatibility of titanium implants.

GA203/06/0285 “Photoactive molecular electronic parts: the theoretical study and experimental modelling”, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is RNDr. Petr Toman, PhD., Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 2.274 million, thereof CZK 2.274 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.728/0.728, 2e)

Co-researcher:
- Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Doc. Ing. Martin Weiter, PhD.
Objective of the project: The design of new molecular electronic elements based on the interaction between conjugated macromolecular substances and the photochromic substances. The research project’s activities are focussed on the theoretical and experimental studies of model molecular systems suitable for the construction of new electronic elements transforming an optical signal to the electrical one. The quantum chemical calculations will provide molecular parameters necessary for the modelling of intramolecular transport of charge carriers like ionising potentials, electrostatic potential barriers, and transmission integrals. The modelling of the intramolecular transport of charge carriers is based on the solution of the time dependent Schrödinger formula within the approximation of the tight coupling. The experimental project’s part covers the study of the optical and electrical switching and its dynamics and the transport of charge carriers considering the density of electron localised states induced by photochromic substances.

GA203/06/0786 “Modification of nanocrystalline silicon surfaces with diagnostic organic parts for the optical detection of chemical substances”, 1/2006 – 12/2008, the researcher is Doc. RNDr. Juraj Dian, CSc., Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, the total costs of CZK 2.553 million, thereof CZK 2.553 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.851/0.851, 6d)

Co-researcher:
- Institute of Chemical Technology Praha, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Prof. RNDr. Vladimír Král, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The chemical modification of the porous silicon surface by organic recognition elements for sensor applications. The main works focus on the research of chemical reactions in the course of which suitable organic substances get tied to the porous silicon surface.
The main tasks are as follows: (i) The synthesis of suitable recognising elements and (ii) the optimising of their relation from the points of view of the morphology of porous silicon and the size of tied molecules. The purpose of the chemical modification is as follows: (i) The gaining of basic knowledge about the surface chemistry of the nanostructural silicon, (ii) the increase in the long-term stability of porous silicon physical properties, (iii) the utilisation of the modified material for the detection of chemicals in liquid and gaseous states, and (iv) the determination of the interaction kinds between the recognition elements on the surface of porous silicon and the selected analytes, the quantitative studies of the sensor reactions to the amount of analytes.

GA203/06/1368 “Preparation and studies of amorphous chalcogenide layers and their potential application in optical recordings and memory”, 1/2006-12/2008, the researcher is Prof. Ing. Tomáš Wágner, CSc., University of Pardubice, FCHT, the total costs of CZK 3.274 million, thereof CZK 3.274 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 1.068/1.068, 1d)

Co-researchers:
- Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, RNDr. Tomáš Grygar, CSc.
- Nuclear Physics Institute of AS CR, v.v.i., Husinec-Řež, RNDr. Vratislav Peřina, CSc.
Objective of the solution: The project studies the preparation of amorphous chalcogenide layers prepared with the spin coating method, laser pulse depositing, and the magnetron sputtering in combination with the optically induced diffusion and silver solution (OIDR) in glassy systems As-S, As-S-Se, Ge-Se, and in systems containing silver, e.g. Ag-As-Sb-S or Ag-Ge-Se. The OIDR kinetics is measured from the change in reflection of double layers Ag/chalcogenide and by the spectral ellipsometry that determines the optical parameters of the layers. There is the method of Rutherford back-scattering of ions (RBS) used for non destructive analyses of product compositions after and in the course of OIDR. The structure of prepared layers and of OIDR prepared layers, before and after exposing to the laser, is determined by the (micro) Raman, UV-vis-Infrared spectroscopy and the roentgen (micro) diffraction. There are also thermal properties of the prepared thin layers and of volume samples studied with the differentiation scanning calorimetry and photocalorimetry.

GA203/06/1488 “Inorganic molecules and ions in thin water films on the surface of mixed hydrophilic/hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers”, 1/2006 – 12/2008, the researcher is RNDr. Martina Roeselová, PhD., Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Praha, the total costs of CZK 0.555 million, thereof CZK 0.555 million from the state budget. (Year 2008 – 0.169/0.169, 6a)
Objective of the solution: Chemical processes taking place on organic surfaces play an important role in many areas, from biology and atmospheric chemistry to nanotechnologies. A thin layer of water adsorbed at the surface, which creates a very specific reaction environment, is an important factor in a number of heterogenous chemical reactions. For the understanding, management and possible utilisation of heterogenous processes, we must gain detailed microscopy information about the structure and properties of these thin water films and about the solvation of inorganic molecules and ions in them.



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